Approaching Panama Canal after a lovely calm clear warm swanky trip. Pass thru canal tomorrow. Regards to all.
J. Alden Mason, January 17, 1940
Approaching Panama Canal after a lovely calm clear warm swanky trip. Pass thru canal tomorrow. Regards to all.
J. Alden Mason, January 17, 1940
This past fall, Professor Kate Moore’s freshman seminar Food & Fire: Archaeology and the Laboratory was the first course taught for the Penn Museum’s new Center for the Analysis of Archaeological Materials (CAAM). During the course of the semester, students had the opportunity to examine some of the Museum’s extensive archaeological collections, which have been excavated and collected over the past 127 years. The students not only had access to Museum objects, but they created their own cultural artifacts using experimental archaeology techniques. These opportunities allow further insight into the creation and utilization of prehistoric technologies, and provide a comparison point to excavated materials.
In October recent Doctoral graduate Sam Lin gave a brief lecture on archaeological lithics and flint knapping (the process of manufacturing stone tools). The students then proceeded outside to try their skills at making their own stone tools.
Each student created their own cutting tool by striking a hammerstone into an obsidian nodule, which, when done correctly, drives off a sharp flake. These flake tools were then used to cut the meat off of a chicken bone.
Meanwhile several larger stones were used to smash open cow long bones, in an effort to get at the tasty and high fat (i.e. high energy) bone marrow within, much like humans and their ancestors have been doing for the past two million years.
Once equipped with their now trusty stone tools and newfound appreciation of just how sharp a stone can be, the students returned to the lab. They first recorded their flake tools, as they would an archaeological specimen, drawing, measuring, and describing their artifacts. The cutting blades were then examined under a microscope, to inspect the use-wear damage which occurs along the edge, as the blade is dulled and scratched.
Finally, the material of the stone was analyzed with a portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) gun, which provides an analysis of the elemental makeup of an object by exciting the atoms with X-rays and reading the energy signature given off by the escaping electrons. With this technique, it is possible to determine where the raw material came from.
These are just some of the unique opportunities that students in the Museum’s new CAAM program will be afforded in this collaboration between the Museum and the School of Arts and Sciences. The second CAAM class to be taught this Spring will be Living World in Archaeological Science. This course will explore the archaeological remains of animals, plants, and humans, which will be taught by a team of experts in each subject: Kate Moore, Meg Kassabaum, and Janet Monge.
A part of every expedition, the crew for Sitio Conte began to collect supplies. Camps need to be stocked with all sorts of goods, from food and clothing to medical supplies and scientific materials. In collecting supplies, John Corning contacted the Technical Supply Company in Palo Alto, California in regards to Plastico Moulage materials.Plastico Moulage is a rubber material used to create molds, down to the smallest detail. The Technical Supply Company referred Corning to the Warren-Knight Company, local to Philadelphia and still in existence today.
Also included with the letter were informational materials about Plastico Moulage, detailing its various usages. It could be used for various professions, including:
The promotional materials also demonstrated it’s uses photographically:
Despite all of its uses, Plastico Moulage was left off the final packing list. The expedition instead chose traditional plaster of Paris.
-Schaeffer to Mason, January 9, 1940
On January 9th, Mason received this cable granting the Penn Museum permission for archaeological excavations in Panama at the site of Sitio Conte. The Museum’s agent in Panama, Charles Schaeffer sent a more detailed letter that same day stating that: “the Secretary of Public Instruction, this morning, assured us that he would sign a contract authorizing your expedition on the terms agreed to by you and the Contes” and also that the conditions of the contract were “substantially those of the Peabody contract.” The main issue in question was whether or not Panamanian law allowed foreign excavations on private lands, since the land was owned by the Conte family. In 1927, Miguel Conte discovered the Pre-Columbian cemetery on his property and “had encouraged professional archaeologists to help record the history of the ancient Coclé people who once lived there.”1 He had invited the Peabody excavation down and would now be hosting the Penn Museum.
Receiving permission from the Panamanian government was the last major hurdle for Mason and the Museum. All the pieces were finally falling into place!
Lucy Fowler Williams, “Beneath the Surface: The Excavations at Sitio Conte” Expedition 56, no. 3 (Winter, 2014), 17.
Generally, when visitors arrive at Gordion, they see the monumental Midas Mound, the tomb of the Phrygian king, and the Museum where a collection of excavated artifacts are displayed.
Next to the Museum is the tea-house, “çayevi”, where tea, cold drinks and freshly baked thin-layered crusty bread, (gözleme), and pita type bread (bazlama) are served with fresh butter and cheese upon request.
However, beyond the çay evi is the Yassıhöyük village (hereafter YH), where only a few visitors venture to see and take some photos. It provides the visitor a first-hand experience of a “living” Central Anatolian village, with its traditional mudbrick architecture, “kitchen gardens”, with vegetables and fruit trees alternating with flower beds, sheep folds and mudbrick ovens all situated within walled courtyards.
Generally, few people are seen idling in their gardens during the day in spring and summer as both men and women are busy at work either doing agriculture or herding, except for the retired or elderly grandparents who stay at home, and take care of young children.
Presently Yassıhöyük has nearly 350 inhabitants, each household comprises several generations of unmarried children, married couple/s and widowed grandparents. In mid 1950s as plough and oxen gave way to tractor, the village population increased from a few households of about 30 people to nearly 150, living in one to two storey houses built with stone, mudbrick and timber.
In the 1990s Modern houses built of cinder-block appeared in courtyards. The old mud-brick structures were converted into storage of crops, dung fuel, and animal pens. However, the age-old mudbrick hearth, oven and tandır (bake-house) fixtures are kept intact but rarely used.
Starting in 2000 the well-to-do farmers began to build large storage buildings for wheat, straw, up-to-date farm equipment, and pens for milk cows.
In the last 10 years milk cooperatives are formed in villages that collect milk daily from households, which in turn is distributed to factories through a central station located in Ankara.
The village is more than its physical appearance, and it is changing at a fast pace. It is divided into two sections by a dry canal. The older single storey mudbrick structures reflect a simpler and, admittedly, a healthier lifestyle. But they are quickly being replaced by “modern” two-three storey concrete (cinder-block) structures with indoor plumbing and modern kitchens. Nevertheless remnants of the traditional culture still persist.
Everything is unsettled and hectic. The expedition has been arranged so suddenly.
- Mason to Merrill, January 8, 1940
The chaotic nature of planning a last minute archaeological expedition was dragging upon Mason, as his letter of the 8th of January to Bob Merrill indicates. In it, he officially hires Merrill as draftsman for the expedition, saying:
Mason also relayed to Merrill that the Panamanian government had not yet given their consent for the expedition. It did seem likely, though, according to Schaeffer, his government contact in Panama. This news he was expecting any day now.
Optimistic, Mason continued to press forward with hiring staff and making arrangements, relaying to Merrill information about the travel options for the expedition members to reach Panama. He had contacted three shipping lines, Grace Line, United Fruit, and Standard Fruit, and the three had offered discounted fares for the expedition to travel on one of their freight shipping boats. Glamorous cruise lines, these options were not.
At the close of the letter, Mason implores Merrill to respond quickly as
Follow along from the beginning! Sitio Conte in Real Time
Since its founding in 1887, the Penn Museum has been an important hub for teaching and learning on the University of Pennsylvania campus. Penn undergraduates and graduate students have a unique opportunity to wander the galleries, delve into the archives, and ‘excavate’ within the Museum’s artifact collections as part of their coursework and individual research. The Academic Engagement Department works to deepen the Museum’s ties with the University, and to encourage innovative approaches to teaching with our collections. We’ve asked faculty from across the University to tell us more about their experiences teaching at the Museum; here are their stories.
This fall, I had another great experience teaching in the Museum. That in itself is nothing new, since my department has a policy that all of our courses should visit the Museum at least once every semester. Since this means that majors, minors, and others will make multiple visits because they take more than one Classical Studies (CLST) course, it isn’t possible just to walk through the galleries time after time. But the collections are diverse, and the staff are very helpful in sorting out what particular objects are most appropriate for this or that course.
The visit I’m writing about involved a course that I hadn’t taught for a long time, Latin 101, Introduction to Latin. This is just what it sounds like, the first course in a sequence of four that teaches students the grammar and vocabulary they need to start reading Cicero, Vergil, and other authors at an advanced level. You might not expect that objects would be that useful in such a course. But for a long time, thanks to my colleague James Ker, it has been normal to use ancient inscriptions in these courses. Inscriptions are good teaching tools because their language is relatively standardized, and that makes them easier to read than literary texts. And, unlike literary texts, they do not come to us through a process of copying and recopying, which can and usually does introduce errors and uncertainties. They are about as close to an authentic, original text as you can get. Plus, it’s just exciting to work with an object that is two thousand years old.
All of that said, I think the students were a little dubious about how much they were going to get out of looking at these inscriptions. We made our visit right before Thanksgiving, and they had been studying Latin only since September. Even some of the readings in our textbook, which had been written or edited with beginners in mind, were still pretty challenging. How accessible was this raw, unprocessed Latin going to be?
The stones we examined were mainly funeral inscriptions, so before we looked carefully at them, we discussed what we might expect to find. The students inferred correctly that we would find names, dates of some sort, and other information about the deceased. We then discussed why information like that might be interesting, and it wasn’t long before they realized that, if you had the information from thousands of such inscriptions, as in fact we do, you could study them as a kind of database of information about life expectancy, family and social relationships, and things of that sort. It’s a whole different perspective on the ancient world from the one found in canonical literature, and the students were both surprised and intrigued by that.
Next, I asked them to work in teams to transcribe the texts of about eight inscriptions. They quickly found that some were easier and some harder simply to transcribe, because the stonecutters used more or less formal scripts for different inscriptions, and also because the condition of the different stones varied. But the students found that be shining a light on the letters from different angles, they might become easier to read. By the end of a 45-minute working session, they were able to transcribe all of the inscriptions, except one that was scratched out letter forms that resemble ancient cursive, which is very difficult to read, and two small inscriptions in Greek, which I have to confess I included as a kind of trick question. (They handled it very well, though!)
Then, working from their transcriptions, they tried to translate the texts, referring to the originals as needed, when their ideas about translating this or that phrase caused them to doubt their transcription. By the end, with a little help from me on things like naming conventions and abbreviations, they were able to translate everything correctly. One of the highlights for me was when they discovered a “mistake” in one of the inscriptions, which said that the deceased had lived for such-and-so many years, but used the ablative instead of the accusative case. At first, they didn’t believe it was possible that any actual Roman would have made a grammatical mistake. But in fact, inscriptions were not always written by highly educated people, and the majority of Romans were apt to make mistakes as people are today. I think the students were impressed with themselves for being able to correct an ancient texts after studying Latin for only a little more than two months!
So, while I expected on the basis of experience in other courses that this visit would go well, I had no idea it would go as well as it did. It was definitely a high point in our semester, and not just a change of pace, but a unique validation of the good work that the students had been doing all along.
The work in the Penn Museum Archives never ends. The backlog resists attempts at taming it. The archives is happy to have a number of interns and volunteers who are willing to help organize, catalog, and preserve the documents, drawings, and photographs in the collections. Alyssa Velazquez is one such intern, who is presently reorganizing the storage of the old glass plate negatives. The Museum has at least 30,000 glass plates, in sizes ranging from 3×4 inches to 11×14 inches. Many of these were originally transported into the field, were shot and developed there, and were then brought back to the Museum. Others were taken in the Museum’s photo studio, which was established by at least 1902. The Adventures of Ringo and Sobek is a social science satire centered around the Museum’s old records, surroundings, and areas of study.
In The Continuing Adventures of Ringo and Sobek:
to my dear human resource, it is I, Ringo.
pardon if I misplace word or meaning. this type writer is foreign to me.
and these written words though well intended may come off mal-informed and riddled with sentimentality.
I previously wrote to maintenance in regards to a hole that leaks upon the top shelf.
Sobek is highly sensitive. exposure to natural elements is inadvisable.
When the issue was not attended to – I took it on myself –
a construction project that was coming along quite nicely. until disgruntled voices started to come from below.
Voices once unheard began to harass and audibly assault
I invited these invasive sounds to meet Sobek and me, so as to instate peace.
yet they refused to budge. fearing Sobek’s temperament I took my grievance to them, these ground floor tenants.
their tags labeled them as lot 770. What a lot they were.
Salutations neighbors say I
Why came you? said one
Because of the noise was my reply
Yes, said a third. you make and take up clatter.
Your voices have made it difficult to continue building, I retorted.
Building? What are you building? cried the one on the end.
I’m fixing a hole where the rain gets in. which is a fact.
you, invasive pest, did not ask stated the third to last
I questioned them: why should I ask?
Building what you please is not permissible snapped one of the first. Especially when you decide to build above us. there is an order. there are rules.
continual conferences with these chiefs of power have been overshadowed with tradition and ethics. they have failed to offer up any proof of shelving patriarchy nor have they complied to any of my personally drafted spatial acts.
My humans. please.
I have tried to reason. but there is no reason to be had.
you must deal with these dictators.
this federally empowered clan that has taken to chanting:
where I belong I’m right.
associated or unassociated, you as human resources must take control.
is my right to pursuit of survival to be drowned out because of a rusted archaic infrastructure?
one of which neither Sobek nor I asked to be housed on, when neighbored with chipped cultural items.
I offer condolences to their ancestors
yet I question our shared future.
Partners? enemies? Neighbors?
What can we be?
as I attempt to simply salvage Sobek, as well as my own, dignity
I am being wrongfully accused of colonialism though I know of no such fraternity at this museum
it is my continual failure with these tribal-antes that has forced me to accept that you are the only individuals with the power to solve this tryst.
when you speak to them, you may refer to my documented complaint,
perhaps my written words will lead to some success.
“In the meantime we are making all arrangements so that the moment that information arrives we can start the wheel going.”
-Mason to Lothrop, January 5, 1940
As the dust from the holidays settled, Mason returned to work firing off correspondence about everything the team would need down in Panama. Luckily back in December, Samuel K. Lothrop from the Peabody Museum, had given Mason a long list of notes [see Lothrop Notes] about the ins and outs of excavating in Panama and specifically at Sitio Conte. Here are a few important ones:
1. Ask Schaeffer about customs in and out; Zetek helped.
13. Men live at home and provide their own lunches; we provide water. Camp water is boiled river water. Make a pier at river to get water.
15. Buy paper bags & cotton for packing in Panama. Cloth bags not securable there. Take from here quantities of small cardboard boxes for fine small specimens. Get packing paper in Panama, old newspapers, etc., but must ask early to have them collected. Old gasoline boxes best for packing. May get excelsion in Panama. Get plaster there.
24. Law does not apply to private land. Article 342 of civil code, 1916. Article 102 of Law 41 of 1924. Decree 7 of 1925, Feb. 23.
27. Need lots of flashlights.
33. Few mosquitoes; none in daytime. Nobody got malaria. First aid goods, aspirin. No quinine prophylaxis. No heavy bush. Very clean country for tropics. Little dysentery. Sick can be taken to Panama quickly. Dr. James best physician, if sober.
38. Buy top of toilet seat and nail on, with a pit and brush fence.
43. Cook can bake; his [Lothrop] had a tin oven but might have to bring one down. No butter. Get stock of canned food in in [sic] Panonome or Panama. Order by case in Panama, not from States except lots of sauses [sic], etc., for poor meat. Don’t use local lard; use canned lard, Crisco or butter. (Danish butter probably hard to get now. ) Meat can be purchased twice a week in Penonome and must by law be sold by 9 AM. Can be kept overnight in water. Might buy one of these refrigerators run by kerosene (Crossley Carp., I think:)–See Abercrombie about these & similar things. Could make ice then. Can get ice & beer from Penonome. Plenty of oranges, some bananas. Pork not good. No local vegetables. All vegetables canned. Rice, potatoes, beans (probably means these available locally or in Penonome). Can occasionally get chicken & eggs; chicken very tough. No milk; take canned or Klim. Take plenty of buillion cubes.
57. Best pottery is at bottom, sometimes 12 ft down. Best gold near top.
58. Make small drawings of broken vessels & object & put in later on large general plan.
65. Get snake venom from one of these above. Curtis is practical man who will help with practical methods, house-building, etc. He likes duck-shooting.
66. Chicha for work men on payday. One good expedition ball (best during Holy Week)
Some of these tips are self-explanatory and practical: typical considerations to make when planning an expedition. Perhaps the most important of all the tips are #1 and #24, about Panama’s laws regarding foreign excavations on private lands. This was going to be the deal breaker: could the Penn Museum legally excavate and bring objects back from Panama to Philadelphia? Lothrop advised Mason to write George S. Schaeffer of the Chase National Bank in Panama about the antiquities laws in Panama. Schaeffer was Lothrop and Harvard’s agent in Panama and negotiated the contracts between the landowners at the site and the university in the early 30s. Mason asked him to do the same for the Penn Museum and was awaiting his response. As he told Lothrop: “In the meantime we are making all arrangements so that the moment that information arrives we can start the wheel going.” More on this later…
Tool Complete with Handle (Again)
Comparisons to and a closer look at U.8783 (Penn Museum Nr. B17463)
Awl, Chisel, or Punch from grave PG 422
With the expansion of the Penn Museum’s scientific lab and teaching space (Center for the Analysis of Archaeological Materials, CAAM) the Museum has acquired a digital x-ray suite. This new equipment allows us to take a closer look at and inside objects. A good candidate for investigation is the awl from PG 422 we saw last month. With x-rays, we can look beneath the bitumen handle.
[Though the X-Ray suite is used by some members of CAAM, it is actually a part of the Conservation Department at the Museum and I’d like to acknowledge the assistance of Conservation personnel in obtaining the x-rays of this object, in particular the work of Tessa De Alarcon.]
I had expected to see a block of wood encased in the bitumen and wanted to find out if it had been carved in the distinctive bulb shape we see for many awls and for the external bitumen itself. Yet, the x-ray doesn’t show a block of wood at all. It’s possible that the wood is approximately the same density as the bitumen and that it therefore doesn’t show, but that doesn’t seem all that likely. Another possibility would be that wood chips were used to stabilize and harden the bitumen into a usable handle. In fact, additions to bitumen are commonly used since the pure material is not very solid. Just as temper is used in clay, bits of harder material were often included in the bitumen mix just as is done with asphalt for roads today. In that modern case, bitumen is the binder for crushed rock, gravel, or sand. Ancient Mesopotamians knew they needed this mix and pot sherds that are sometimes found covered in bitumen mixture probably show their use as mixing bowls.
Crushed shell was common as a strengthening agent as were vegetal and mineral additives. Such mixtures are seen in bitumen used for waterproofing as early as the Ubaid period (see for example finds at the H3 site in the As-Sabiyeh region of Kuwait). On the mixture of bitumen at this site, used to waterproof reed boats, Robert Carter states: “The vegetal matter, chopped reed and/or chaff, increased its flexibility and tensile strength.”
So it might be that chipped wood was used in the bitumen handle of the awl at Ur. This might explain the burning observed on the wood, since the chips could have been burned before mixing. Of course, the appearance of the piece through the missing bitumen area seems rather solid and the chips of wood would thus have been larger than would be expected for a stabilizing material.
The copper tool is quite long, reaching well back into the handle. It flares near the back and then returns to a smaller diameter, ending in a kind of narrow nail head. The copper itself is clearly less corroded in the area surrounded by the bitumen, which would be expected. But, would the bitumen, even with strengthening agents, have been able to support pressure on this tool without allowing the back end to press through and shatter the handle?
Another interesting x-ray revelation is that a hole appears in the back of the copper rod. The hole is placed near the widest point of the embedded portion, about 20% from the nail head end. There doesn’t appear to be a purpose for this hole. Perhaps the tool had been something else in a previous usage and the handle had been placed around it later? Or the hole was used to stabilize or attach the shaft in some way, perhaps by inserting a string through it to emerge from the sides of the handle?
Although our closer investigation has left us with more questions than answers, the utility of such examinations is clear. We would not have been able to approach an understanding otherwise without destroying the tool. CAAM and its scientific tools for analysis have thus helped us to pose new questions and approach new answers. And our new vision of the design of this tool can now be more completely compared to the design of others in our collection and in collections around the world.