University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
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Buzi or Mandarin squares are embroidered badges of rank, worn on the outer coats of Chinese statesmen, military officials, and their wives from the 15th to 20th century CE. Fierce animals such as leopards, lions, and bears represent military officials, while various bird species including the silver pheasant, mandarin duck, and egret symbolize civic officials. The Buddhist and Taoist symbols scattered among the waves and cloud backgrounds in the squares, highlight the syncretism of religious beliefs in China at the time of their manufacture. Standing in for the Emperor and often depicted as a red disk on the upper part of the square, the sun serves as a focal point for many of the animals to look up to and revere.

The Penn Museum's collection of Mandarin squares was acquired by Brigadier-General J. S. Letcher in Beijing right before the Sino-Japanese war in 1894. It consists of 150 badges, including many unorthodox pieces that were most likely used in wedding or funeral ritual dress.


1 - 30 of 170 Records

Mandarin Square

52-23-105B

52-23-105B

Mandarin Square

2011-19-7B

2011-19-7B

Mandarin Square

52-23-108

52-23-108



Mandarin Square

52-23-111A

52-23-111A

Mandarin Square

54-16-3B

54-16-3B

Mandarin Square

54-16-2

54-16-2



Mandarin Square

54-16-4

54-16-4

Mandarin Square

52-23-103A

52-23-103A

Mandarin Square

52-23-99

52-23-99



Mandarin Square

2011-19-7A

2011-19-7A

Mandarin Square

52-23-110A

52-23-110A

Mandarin Square

52-23-100B

52-23-100B



Mandarin Square

52-23-96A

52-23-96A

Mandarin Square

C456

C456

Mandarin Square

52-23-106A

52-23-106A



Mandarin Square

52-23-104A

52-23-104A

Mandarin Square

52-23-104B

52-23-104B

Mandarin Square

52-23-103B

52-23-103B



Mandarin Square

52-23-96B

52-23-96B

Mandarin Square

52-23-98

52-23-98

Mandarin Square

52-23-101B

52-23-101B



Mandarin Square

52-23-101A

52-23-101A

Mandarin Square

52-23-110B

52-23-110B

Mandarin Square

52-23-112

52-23-112



Mandarin Square

52-23-105A

52-23-105A

Mandarin Square

52-23-97

52-23-97

Mandarin Square

54-16-1

54-16-1



Mandarin Square

52-23-100A

52-23-100A

Mandarin Square

52-23-106B

52-23-106B

Mandarin Square

54-16-3A

54-16-3A



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