ANTHROPOLOGY 477: ARCHAEOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY/ MATERIALS ANALYSIS IN ARCHAEOLOGY (HISTORIC PRESERVATION 577)
(also cross-listed in ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE MEDITERRANEAN WORLD)
Penn Museum, Room 419 (Loren Eiseley Seminar), Wednesdays, 2-5 P.M.
INSTRUCTOR: Patrick E. McGovern (firstname.lastname@example.org)
MAX. NUMBER OF STUDENTS: 12
PREREQUISITES: none, but basic high school chemistry essential.
COURSE REQUIREMENTS: prepare a short ORAL paper dealing with a specific physico-chemical technique which has been applied to field or laboratory archaeology (e.g., X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic or Neutron Activation analyses of pottery, proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopic study of glass colorants or metals, ground-penetrating radar, infrared spectrometry, phosphate analysis, isotopic measurements of bone, recombinant DNA analysis, etc.) and a 15-20 p. WRITTEN research paper on a documented field or laboratory project that demonstrates the goals, methods, results, and limitations of an archaeological chemical investigation. Both papers will be presented in class. The research paper may be modified, based on classroom discussion, and submitted before the end of the term.
Final Grade = 25% short paper + 75% research paper (due May 6, 2003)
TEXTBOOK: Lambert, J. B. 1997, Traces of the Past: Unraveling the Secrets of Archaeology through Chemistry. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Available as paperback through Amazon.com, either used, or new by ordering and waiting 10 days for a copy to be printed.
BULK PACK: available at Wharton Reprographics, 400 Steinberg-Dietrich Hall, but also posted on BlackBoard.
All other readings are on reserve in Museum library or will be posted on BlackBoard.
Organizational and Introduction
1. Introduction–continued: Methodological concerns, including scientific method and middle-range theory; historical overview of this rapidly developing, interdisciplinary field.
Readings: McGovern 1988 and 1995 (introduction only), Zurer 1983, Olin 1982, Beck 1985, Jones 1988, Renfrew 1992, Killick 1992, Killick and Young 1997, Ehrenreich 1995, Craddock in Bowman 1991; scan some of the “classics”–Pyddoke 1963, Levey 1967, and Brothwell and Higgs 1970 [not on reserve, but in the library]; for those with minimal archaeological background, read either Ashmore and Sharer 1996 or Sharer and Ashmore 1993 over the first month of the course, concentrating on theoretical concerns, the nature of archaeological data, survey and excavation, and analysis of artifacts.
2. Review of basic inorganic and organic chemistry, including how chemical investigations are articulated with different levels of archaeological interpretation (e.g., dating, technology, origins and development of human culture).
Tour of MASCA laboratories: The MASCA lab visit will focus on Neutron Activation Analysis and other techniques as applied to pottery and silicate analysis, infrared spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography for the study of ancient foods, fermented beverages and dyes; and overviews of palaeobotany, metallurgy, zooarchaeology, and/or computer graphics and laser theodolite surveying.
Readings: Helpful to review any introductory chemistry text (organic and/or inorganicBavailable at bookstore and Chem library); for organic chemistry, Mills and White 1994: chs. 1 and 2; analytical techniques are well discussed by Tite 1972.
A tour of the Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter will also be scheduled in late January/early February.
3. Archaeological field work and systematics: basic archaeological methodology and terminology, and its integration with physico-chemical and photographic techniques (including geophysical and chemical survey methods, and aerial/satellite reconnaissance); follow-up test excavations and laboratory studies are stressed.
Readings: Lambert 1997: chs. 1 and 2; Myers and Myers and Bevan in McGovern 1995; McGovern 1986: chs. 1-3; relevant sections of Ashmore and Sharer 1996/Sharer and Ashmore 1993 (see #1, above).
4. Scientific investigation of a museum collection: Beth Shan, Israel.
Readings: read preface, pp. 1-5, and chs. 1 (Introduction and Reconstruction), 2, 5, and 11 of James and McGovern 1993; McGovern, Fleming, and Swann 1993.
5. Ceramic analysis.
Readings: Lambert 1997: chs. 3 and 5; Matson, Freestone, Vaughan, Henderson, and Vandiver and Tumosa in McGovern 1995; Middleton and Freestone in Bowman 1991; McGovern 1986: chs. 5, 7, and 15; McGovern, Fleming, and Swann 1991 and 1993 (see #4, above); McGovern, et al. 1994; James and McGovern 1993: chs. 2, 5, and 11 (see #4, above); scan Frank 1982, Henderson 1989, Kaczmarcyzk and Hedges 1983, McGovern 1989a and 1989b, and Rice 1987 (especially pp. 31-167). Also see Orton, et al. 1993: 65-75, 113-52 and 231-42.
Feb. 21 6. Short papers on archaeological chemical/ceramic techniques.
Feb. 28 7. Short papers on archaeological chemical/ceramic techniques.
March 2-12 Spring Break
March 14 8. Provenience studies: trade, production centers, and ethnicity.
Readings: brief discussion in Lambert 1997: ch. 3; Hughes in Bowman 1991; Glascock in Neff 1992; Harbottle 1976 and 1991; McGovern 2000a; Neff 1994; Neff, Bishop, and Arnold 1988; Rice 1987: 309-446; Sayre 1975; web page of University of Missouri–Columbia neutron activation analysis lab via the address provided in Select Bibliography for course.
March 21 9. Foods, drugs, and beverages, including organic contents analysis and isotopic dietary studies.
Readings: Lambert 1997: ch. 6; McGovern, Fleming, and Katz 1995; McGovern 1996, 1997b, 1998, 2000b, and 2003; McGovern, Michel, and Badler 1993; McGovern, et al. 1996, 1997, 1999, 2004, and 2005; Cavalieri, et al. 2003; Burger and van der Merwe 1990; Evershed, et al. 1992 and 1994; Mills and White 1994: chs. 3, 6, 7, and 8; Sherratt 1987; Dietler 1990; Knapp 1991; scan Biers and McGovern 1990, Price 1989, and Tzedakis and Martlew 1999. Some additional articles at end of BlackBoard listing are optional.
March 28 10. Dyes, textiles, and pigments.
Readings: Lambert 1997: ch. 4; McGovern and Michel 1990; McGovern, Michel, and Lazar 1990; Michel, Lazar, and McGovern 1992a and 1992b; Michel and McGovern 1987 and 1990; Raheel in Wisseman and Williams 1994; Roundhill, et al. 1994; Goffer 1980: ch. 10; Mills and White 1994: ch. 10.
April 4 11. Research papers
April 11 12. Research papers
April 18 13. Research papers
May 2 Written research paper due
Select Bibliography for Archaeological Chemistry, Anthropology 477
Spring 2010, P. E. McGovern
Aitken, M. J.
1990 Science‑based Dating in Archaeology. London: Longman.
Allen, R. O., ed.
1989 Archaeological Chemistry IV. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 220. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society.
Arroyo-Garcia, R., et al.
2006 Genetic Evidence for Multiple Centers of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) Domestication. Molecular Ecology.
Ashmore, W., and Sharer, R. J.
1996 Discovering Our Past : A Brief Introduction to Archaeology. 2nd ed. Mountain View, CA : Mayfield.
Beck, C. W., ed.
1973 Archaeological Chemistry. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 138. Washington, D. C.: American Chemical Society.
1985 Trouble in the Hedgerows. Journal of Archaeological Science 12: 405-409.
Biers, W. R., and McGovern, P. E., eds.
1990 Organic Contents of Ancient Vessels: Materials Analysis and Archaeological Investigation (edited with W. R. Biers). MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, vol. 7. Philadelphia: MASCA, University of Pennsylvania Museum, University of Pennsylvania. Articles on “Drink and Be Merry!: Infrared Spectroscopy and Ancient Near Eastern Wine” (with V. Badler and R. H. Michel) and “Royal Purple Dye: Its Identification by Complementary Chemical Techniques” (with R. H. Michel).
1990 Radiocarbon Dating. Berkeley : University of California.
Bowman, S., ed.
1991 Science and the Past. Toronto: University of Toronto.
Brill, R. H., ed.
1971 Science and Archaeology. Cambridge, MA: MIT.
Brothwell, D., and Higgs, E.
1970 Science in Archaeology. New York: Praeger.
Burger, R. L., and van der Merwe, N. J.
1990 Maize and the Origin of Highland Chavín Civilization: An Isotopic Perspective. American Anthropologist 92: 85-95.
Carter, G. F., ed.
1978 Archaeological Chemistry II. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 171. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society.
Cavalieri, D., et al.
2003 Evidence for S. cerevisiae Fermentation in Ancient Wine. Journal of Molecular Evolution 57: S226-232.
Davidson, D. A., and Shackley, M. L., eds.
1976 Geoarchaeology: Earth Science and the Past. London: Duckworth.
1990 Driven by Drink: The Role of Drinking in the Political Economy and the Case of Early Iron Age France. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 9: 352-406.
Dunnell, R. C.
1993 Why Archaeologists Don’t Care about Archaeometry. Archaeomaterials 7: 161-65.
Ehrenreich, R. M.
1995 Archaeometry into Archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 2: 1-6.
Evershed, R. P., et al.
1992 The Survival of Food Residues: New Methods of Analysis, Interpretation and Application. Pp. 187-208 in New Developments in Archaeological Science, ed. A. M. Pollard. Proceedings of the British Academy, vol. 77.
1994 Application of Isotope Ratio Monitoring Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry to the Analysis of Organic Residues of Archaeological Origin. Analyst 119: 909-14.
1982 Glass and Archaeology. London: Academic.
2005 Stone Age Beer. Discover, 26.11 (Nov.): 55-59.
1980 Archaeological Chemistry. Chemical Analysis, vol. 55. New York: J. Wiley.
1976 Activation Analysis in Archaeology. Radiochemistry 3: 33‑72.
1991 Efficiencies and Error‑Rates of Euclidean and Mahalanobis Searches in Hypergeometries of Archaeological Ceramic Compositions. Pp. 413‑24 in Archaeometry 90, eds. E. Pernicka and G. A. Wagner. Basel: Birkhauser.
Henderson, J., ed.
1989 Scientific Analysis in Archaeology and Its Interpretation. Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, Monograph 19; UCLA Institute of Archaeology, Archaeological Research Tools 5. Oxford: Oxford University.
Hermann, B., and Hummel, S., eds.
1994 Ancient DNA. Berlin: Springer.
James, F. W., and McGovern, P. E.
1993 The Late Bronze Egyptian Garrison at Beth Shan: A Study of Levels VII and VIII. University of Pennsylvania Museum Monograph 85. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum.
Jones, R. F. J.
1988 Questions, Answers and the Consumer in Archaeological Science. Pp. 1-7 in Science and Archaeology, Glasgow 1987, eds. E. A. Slater and J. O. Tate. British Archaeological Reports (BAR) 196, vol. 1. Oxford: BAR.
2001 The Molecule Hunt: Archaeology and the Search for Ancient DNA. New York: Arcade.
Kaczmarcyzk, A., and Hedges, R. E.M.
1983 Ancient Egyptian Faience: An Analytical Survey of Egyptian Faience from Predynastic to Roman Times. Warminster: Aris & Phillips.
Knapp, A. B.
1991 Spice, Drugs, Grain and Grog: Organic Goods in Bronze Age East Mediterranean Trade. Pp. 21-68 in Bronze Age Trade in the Mediterranean, ed. N. H. Gale. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology, vol. 90. Jonsered, Sweden: P. Åström.
Lambert, J. B., ed.
1984 Archaeological Chemistry III. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 205. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society.
Lambert, J. B., and Grupe, G. eds.
1993 Prehistoric Human Bone: Archaeology at the Molecular Level. Berlin: Springer.
Levey, M., ed.
1967 Archaeological Chemistry: A Symposium. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
1975 Soil Science and Archaeology. London: Academic.
McGovern, P. E.
1986 The Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages of Central Transjordan: The Baq`ah Valley Project, 1977‑1981. University of Pennsylvania Museum Monograph 65. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum.
1988 Archaeological Chemistry: An Emerging Discipline. Beckman Center for History of Chemistry News 5: 3‑6.
1989a Ancient Ceramic Technology and Stylistic Change. Pp. 63‑81 in Scientific Analysis in Archaeology and its Interpretation, ed. J. Henderson. Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, Monograph 19; UCLA Institute of Archaeology, Archaeological Research Tools 5. Oxford: Oxford University.
1989b Cross‑Craft and Cross‑Cultural Interactions in Ceramics (edited with M. R. Notis). Ceramics and Civilization IV, ed. W. D. Kingery. Westerville, OH: American Ceramic Society. Articles on “Ceramics and Craft Interactions: A Theoretical Framework, with Prefatory Remarks” (pp. 1‑11) and “Cross‑Cultural Craft Interaction: The Late Bronze Egyptian Garrison at Beth Shan” (pp. 147‑194).
1990 The Ultimate Attire: Jewelry from a Canaanite Temple at Beth Shan. Expedition 32: 16‑23.
1995 Science in Archaeology: A Review. American Journal of Archaeology 99: 79-142.
1996 Vin extraordinaire. The Sciences 36: 27-31.
1997a “Hyksos” Trade Connections between Tell el-Dab`a (Avaris) and the Levant: A Neutron Activation Study of the Canaanite Jar (with G. Harbottle). Pp. 141-57 in The Hyksos: New Historical and Archaeological Perspectives, ed. E. Oren. University Museum Monograph 96. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum.
1997b Wine of Egypt’s Golden Age: An Archaeochemical Perspective. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 83: 69-108.
1998 Wine for Eternity. Archaeology 51.4: 28-34.
2000a The Foreign Relations of the “Hyksos”: A Neutron Activation Study of Middle Bronze Age Pottery from the Eastern Mediterranean. Oxford: Archaeopress.
2000b The Funerary Banquet of AKing Midas.@ Expedition 42: 21-29.
McGovern, P. E., et al.
1994 The Archaeological Origin and Significance of the Dolphin Vase as Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 296: 31-43.
1996 Neolithic Resinated Wine. Nature 381 (June 6): 480-81.
1997 The Beginnings of Winemaking and Viniculture in the Ancient Near East and Egypt. Expedition 39: 3-21.
1999 A Funerary Feast Fit for King Midas. Nature 402 (Dec. 23): 863-864.
2003 Ancient Wine: The Search for the Origins of Viniculture. Princeton: Princeton University.
2004 Fermented Beverages of Pre- and Proto-Historic China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101.51: 17593-98 (on-line at www.pnas.org, search for 10.1073/pnas.0407921102) (with J. Zhang, J. Tang, Z. Zhang, G. R. Hall, R. A. Moreau, A. Nuñez, E. D. Butrym, M. P. Richards, C.-s. Wang, G. Cheng, Z. Zhao, and C. Wang).
2005 Chemical Identification and Cultural Implications of a Mixed Fermented Beverage from Late Prehistoric China. Asian Perspectives 44: 249-75.
McGovern, P. E., Fleming, S. J., and Katz, S. H., eds.
1995 The Origins and Ancient History of Wine. New York: Gordon and Breach.
McGovern, P. E., Fleming, S. J., and Swann, C. P.
1991 The Beads from Tomb B10a B27 at Dinkha Tepe (Azerbaijan, Iran), and the Beginnings of Glassmaking in the Ancient Near East. American Journal of Archaeology 95: 395‑402.
1993 New Kingdom Silicate Technology at Home and Abroad. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 290‑291: 1‑27.
McGovern, P. E., and Michel, R. H.
1985 Royal Purple Dye: Tracing the Chemical Origins of the Industry. Analytical Chemistry 57: 1514A‑1522A.
1990 Royal Purple Dye: The Chemical Reconstruction of the Ancient Mediterranean Industry. Accounts of Chemical Research 23: 152‑158.
McGovern, P. E., Michel, R. H., and Lazar, J.
1990 The Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Indigoid Dyes. Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists 106: 22‑25.
Michel, R. H., Lazar, J., and McGovern, P. E.
1992a The Chemical Composition of the Indigoid Dyes Derived from the Hypobranchial Glandular Secretions of Murex Mollusks. Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists 108: 145‑150.
1992b Indigoid Dyes in Peruvian and Coptic Textiles of the University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Archeomaterials 6: 69‑83.
Michel, R. H., and McGovern, P. E.
1987 The Chemical Processing of Royal Purple Dye: Ancient Descriptions as Elucidated by Modern Science. Archeomaterials 1: 135‑143, with addendum in vol. 2, p. 93.
1990 The Chemical Processing of Royal Purple Dye: Ancient Descriptions as Elucidated by Modern Science, Part II. Archeomaterials 4: 97‑104.
Michel, R. H., McGovern, P. E., and Badler, V. R.
1993 The First Wine and Beer: Chemical Detection of Ancient Fermented Beverages. Analytical Chemistry 65: 408A‑413A.
Michels, J. W.
1973 Dating Methods in Archaeology. Studies in Archaeology. New York: Seminar.
Mills, J. S., and White, R.
1994 The Organic Chemistry of Museum Objects. 2nd ed. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Neff, H., ed.
1992 Chemical Characterization of Ceramic Pastes in Archaeology. Monographs in Old World Archaeology 7. Madison, WI: Prehistory.
1994 RQ-Mode Principal Components Analysis of Ceramic Compositional Data. Archeometry 36: 115-30.
Neff, H., Bishop, R. L., and Arnold, D. E.
1988 Reconstructing Ceramic Production from Ceramic Compositional Data: An Example from Guatemala. Journal of Field Archaeology 15: 339-48.
Olin, J. S., ed.
1982 Future Directions in Archaeometry: A Round Table. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
Olin, J. S., and Franklin, A. D.
1982 Archaeological Ceramics. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
Orna, M. V., ed.
1996 Archaeological Chemistry: Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemical Analysis. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 625. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society.
Orton, C., Tyers, P., and Vince, A.
1993 Pottery in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press.
Parkes, P. A.
1986 Current Scientific Techniques in Archaeology. New York: St. Martin’s. (reviewed by P. E. McGovern in American Journal of Archaeology 92: 285‑286).
Poinar, H. N.
2002 The Genetic Secrets Some Fossils Hold. Accounts of Chemical Research 35: 676-84.
Pollard, A. M., ed.
1992 New Developments in Archaeological Science. Proceedings of the British Academy, vol. 77.
Pollard, A. M., and Heron, C.
1996 Archaeological Chemistry. London: Royal Society of Chemistry.
Powledge, T. M., and Rose, M.
1996 The Great DNA Hunt. Archaeology, Sept.-Oct. and Nov.-Dec. issues.
Price, T. D., ed.
1989 The Chemistry of Prehistoric Human Bone. School of American Research Book. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Pyddoke, E., ed.
1963 The Scientist and Archaeology. London: J. M. Dent.
Renfrew, A. C.
1992 The Identity and Future of Archaeological Science. Pp. 285-93 in New Developments in Archaeological Science, ed. A. M. Pollard. Oxford: Oxford University.
Rice, P. M.
1987 Pottery Analysis: A Sourcebook. Chicago: University of Chicago.
1996a “Recent Ceramic Analysis: 1. Function, Style and Origins”, Journal of Archaeological Research 4(2): 133-163.
1996b “Recent Ceramic Analysis: 2. Composition, Production, and Theory”, Journal of Archaeological Research 4(3): 165-202.
Rogan, P. K., and Salvo, J. J.
1990 Study of Nucleic Acids Isolated from Ancient Remains. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 33: 195-214.
Roundhill, L., et al.
1994 Maya Blue: A Fresh Look at an Old Controversy. Pp. 253-56 in Seventh Palenque Round Table, 1989, eds. M. G. Robertson and V. M. Fields. San Francisco: Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute.
Sandford, M. K., ed.
1993 Investigations of Ancient Human Tissue. Langhorne, PA: Gordon and Breach.
Sayre, E. V.
1975 Brookhaven Procedures for Statistical Analyses of Multivariate Archaeometric Data. Unpublished Brookhaven National Laboratory Report BNL‑23128, Upton, NY.
1987 A Conservation Manual for the Field Archaeologist. Archaeological Research Tools, vol. 4. Los Angeles : Institute of Archaeology, UCLA.
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1993 Archaeology : Discovering Our Past. 2nd ed. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
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1987 Cups That Cheered. Pp. 81-114 in Bell Beakers of the Western Mediterranean, eds. W. H. Waldren and R. C. Kennard. BAR Int. Ser. 331, vol. 1. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.
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1987 Radiocarbon Dating: An Archaeological Perspective. Orlando, FL: Academic.
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1972 Methods of Physical Examination in Archaeology. Studies in Archaeological Science. London: Seminar.
Tzedakis, Y., and Martlew, H., eds.
1999 Minoans and Mycenaeans: Flavours of Their Time. Athens: Greek Ministry of Culture and National Archaeological Museum.
Vouillamoz, J. F., et al.
2006 Genetic characterization and relationships of traditional grape cultivars from Transcaucasia and Anatolia. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization & Utilization, 4.2: 144-58.
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1982 Early Pyrotechnology: The Evolution of the First Fire-Using Industries. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
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1994 Ancient Technologies and Archaeological Materials. Langhorne, PA: Gordon and Breach Science.
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1983 Archaeological Chemistry. Chemical and Engineering News 61 (Feb. 21): 26-44.
Relevant case studies and reviews can also be found in the Ceramics and Civilization series (ed., W. D. Kingery) of the American Ceramic Society and the Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology series (various editors) of the Materials Research Society. Symposia on archaeometry, whose proceedings are sometimes published, are now held biennially. Many more specialized monographs on specific techniques, materials, archaeological applications, etc., ranging from geoarchaeology to GIS applications, can be found using search programs of the Franklin and Combined Research Libraries for Penn’s library home page. Standard introductory chemistry/biochemistry, physics, biology, and geology/petrology/petrography texts should also be consulted. General references for archaeometallurgy, archaeobotany, and faunal analysis, which are covered in other courses, are also not included in this listing.
The following journals and monograph series are of particular value:
British Museum Occasional Papers
Journal of Archaeological Science
Journal of Field Archaeology
MASCA Journal (continued as MASCA Research Papers in Archaeology, generally thematic issues or special archaeometric studies, now discontinued)
Archaeological chemical articles may also appear in more archaeologically or scientifically oriented journals, which can be geographically focused (e.g., the New World in American Antiquity or the Old World in Antiquity), defined by discipline (e.g., American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Analytical Chemistry, and Studies in Conservation) and more or less technical (e.g., Nature, Science, Accounts of Chemical Research, and Archeomaterials (now defunct) carry concise, detailed discussions, while those in Scientific American, American Scientist, and Archaeology are more accessible to the general scientific reader).
A good, selective bibliographic resource is Art and Archaeology Technical Abstracts.
Web sites are becoming increasingly useful, and many of the following hyperlinks can be found on p. 2 of my website (http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~mcgovern).
The Society for Archaeological Sciences’ homepage (http://www.socarchsci.org/facil.htm)
leads to a slew of interesting sites, not all strictly dealing with archaeological chemistry, about dendrochronology (Univ. of Arizona), radiocarbon dating (Waikato University, New Zealand; Oxford University), obsidian hydration (University of Auckland, New Zealand), thermoluminescence dating (Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia), and Neutron Activation Analysis (University of Missouri–Columbia). The site also has information on upcoming conferences, other links to archaeological home pages, and its newsletter.
For a periodic table, search the library home page or go to the second page of my personal website.
ArchNet’s archaeometry listing (http://archnet.asu.edu/) is also useful.
For virtual archaeology sites, see Scientific American 277 (August, 1997): 89-92. Links for some of the web sites, mentioned above, can be conveniently accessed by going to p. 2 of my home page (http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~mcgovern/).
An excellent overview of some areas of biomolecular and inorganic archaeological chemistry (vitreous materials, glass, obsidian, amber, dating, diagenesis, lead in bones, fossil DNA) appeared in Accounts of Chemical Research 35:8 (August 2002).
Also see press releases and links on my homepage.