On the cover:The entrance to Burned Building II at Hasanlu, destroyed in about 800 BC.
Photo by the Hasanlu Project.
By: Tammi J. Schneider
The existence of written records at a site is viewed with great joy because texts impart information that cannot be gleaned from other material remains. When no such texts are found, the archaeologists and other associated scholars must work that much harder to understand what happened at the site. One way this is done is by […]
By: Michelle I. Marcus
In the ancient Near East, small stamps and cylinders with carved or molded designs were used as emblems of status or authority. Their impressions on lumps of clay, called sealings, served to indicate ownership or rights over goods, and to control access to containers or storerooms. While seals and sealings have long held an artistic […]
By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.
The unexpected discovery in 1958 of the now famous “Hasalu Gold Bowl” in a burned occupation level at that site led to extensive excavation of the early Iron Age settlement. This prehistoric cultural period at Hasanlu, located in northwestern Iran, begins in the second half of the 2nd millennium B.C. and ends around 800 B.C. Later […]
By: Maude De Schauensee
The largest collection of contemporaneous, archaeologically documented horse paraphernalia in the Near East comes from the ruins of the town of Hasanlu, destroyed in about 800 B.C. The gear itself, intricate and beautifully made of high quality materials, clearly indicates that horses were not just utilitarian animals but were valued in themselves,perhaps as symbols of […]
By: Oscar W. Muscarella
Warfare in the ancient Near East is abundantly documented by written and archaeological evidence. The use of force to settle political disputes, and to validate the role of kings or leaders is not only common but is glorified in both historical texts and representational art. Excavations at the site of Hasanlu have produced information about […]
By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.
One of the most important results of the excavation of Iron Age Hasanlu is the recovery of well-preserved architectural remains dating to the 9th century B.C., including buildings, gates, courtyards, and roadways. These structures, destroyed by a catastrophic fire, provide a closed context for thousands of artifacts buried in their ruins and afford an opportunity […]
By: Irene J. Winter
Just over 30 years ago, the extraordinary vessel known as the “Hasanlu Gold Bowl” was discovered in the debris of Burned Building I-West, part of the major architectural complex belonging to period IVB on the High Mound. Found not far from the skeletal hand of the individual who had been fleeing with the piece when […]
By: Mary Virginia Harris
On an August evening in 1970 A.D., standing on the top of Hasanlu Tepe, I could see the headlights of the reapers moving back and forth across the wheat fields. Few individual farmers or even villages in Iranian Azerbaijan could afford to buy such a machine. Instead, a family or community would arrange to rent […]
By: David S. Reese
Shell is one of the most durable materials in the archaeological record. Shells and shellfish have been used by man in numerous different ways—as food, a source of medicine, lime, and purple dye, for personal ornaments, utilitarian objects, and votive offerings. Shells found far from their natural source are also indicative of trade and culture […]
By: Vincent C. Pigott
Artifacts of iron constitute one of the single largest classes excavated at Hasanlu. More than 2000 individual iron objects were recorded during excavation, the majority from the destruction level on the High Mound (ca. 800 B.C.). This collection is important not only because of the broad range of artifact types and technology exhibited, but also […]