Members of the Excavation Team
For George H. McFadden, see the detailed biography here.
Bert Hodge Hill (1874-1958)
Bert Hodge Hill first worked on Cyprus as head of the Penn expedition to Lapithos in 1931-1932. He served as director of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens from 1906-1927, and he excavated at Corinth for many years. He lived in Athens, and he had hoped to return to Lapithos for further work, but in 1934, as a result of George McFadden's proposal to begin a new excavation on the island, he abandoned his Lapithos plans and immediately took charge of the logistics and permits for the work at Kourion.
Hill would be the only person to be with the excavation from beginning to end, and he oversaw the first few years of excavations in the city of Kourion, including the so-called palace/baths, now known as the House of Eustolios, and theatre complex. An experienced excavator, he was a mentor to McFadden and Daniel. As he had during World War I, Bert Hodge Hill remained in Athens working for the Red Cross in World War II. After the war, Hill spent less time at Kourion, although he continued to visit the site and remained in constant contact with the excavation team and with the officials at the University Museum.
Hill was the first to arrive on Cyprus after McFadden's sudden death in 1953 and, with the assistance of Rodney Young and Roger Edwards, he took care of McFadden's affairs and his estate on Cyprus. Throughout his time with the excavation, Hill read drafts of papers by every member of the excavation as the Kourion material was prepared for publication.
DeCoursey Fales, Jr. (1918-2000)
DeCoursey Fales, Jr. came to Kourion in 1948, and he excavated what had been called the palace and baths, next to the theatre, in the Hellenistic and Roman city on the Kourion bluff. The area is now called the Eustolios house and baths after the late 4th- early 5th century AD owner. Fales published a preliminary report on the area in 1950 but was not able to complete a final publication. He was educated at Harvard, and he was a professor of classics at Emerson College for many years.
Dorothy Hannah Cox (1892-1978)
When Dorothy Cox came to Kourion, she had already served as architect on a number of excavations in Greece, and she had worked in Cyprus, with Bert Hodge Hill and Virginia Grace at Lapithos in 1931-1932. Cox was an undergraduate at Bryn Mawr and received her master's degree in architecture from Columbia. At Kourion, she was excavation architect, and she excavated the so-called mint in 1953, after McFadden's death. She was also a numismatist, and she published the coins from Kourion. She also published coins from the Penn excavations at Gordion, where she was the architect for several seasons in the 1950s and early 1960s. Along with Daniel and McFadden, Cox served in the Office of Strategic Services in World War II.
John Franklin Daniel III (1910-1948)
Along with George McFadden and Bert Hodge Hill, John Franklin Daniel (known as Pete) was part of the original excavation team that went to Kourion in 1934. He had been in Athens the previous year, and although relatively inexperienced when he started, Daniel became a skilled excavator and administrator, and he also managed the excavation's affairs during the off-season in the 1930s. He excavated on the Kourion acropolis, but as a Bronze Age specialist he did perhaps his most significant work at Kaloriziki in 1934-35 and at Bamboula in 1937-39 and 1948.
Daniel received his Ph.D. from Penn in 1941, with a dissertation entitled Prolegomena to the Cypro-Minoan Script. He was appointed assistant curator in the Mediterranean Section in 1940, and he was made a curator when he returned to Penn in 1946 after his war service. He helped establish a graduate program in classical archaeology at Penn, and in 1946, he became editor-in-chief of the American Journal of Archaeology. An issue of the journal devoted to Homeric studies, which appeared in 1948, was perhaps the most enduring legacy of his editorship. He spent the war years with the Office of Strategic Services in the Mediterranean and was discharged from the army in 1946 as a lieutenant colonel.
He returned to Kourion in the fall of 1948, and in December of that year he died suddenly while in Turkey with Rodney Young and G. Roger Edwards scouting for a site for a new University Museum excavation. Daniel published a number of articles, including excavation reports, on the work at Kourion, but he died before he was able to complete the final publication of Bamboula and Kaloriziki and that was left to others. The loss of Daniel was a huge blow to the excavations at Kourion, but even beyond Cyprus, he was widely recognized as an excavator and scholar of enormous promise, which he was only beginning to realize.
G. Roger Edwards (1914-2009)
In 1953, after McFadden's death, G. Roger Edwards, who had been an Assistant Curator in the Mediterranean Section of the Museum since 1950, was asked to go to Kourion to oversee the final season of excavation in 1953-54 and the closing down of the excavation. He also assisted in settling McFadden's estate and in organizing the final division of finds with the government of Cyprus. Edwards had no prior experience in Cypriot archaeology, although he had worked at other excavations particularly the Athenian Agora and Corinth, He was part of the Penn expedition to Gordion at its beginning, in 1950, and for five seasons thereafter. He was withRodney Young and John Franklin Daniel scouting sites in Turkey when Daniel died in 1948. Edwards also played a critical role in overseeing the Kourion publication projects, some of which were not completed for some years after the end of excavation in 1954.
Ellen Kohler (1916-2008)
In 1949, after a year at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Ellen Kohler came to Kourion to catalogue finds from Kaloriziki and Bamboula. She would stay on as an assistant, working particularly with Saul Weinberg for his publication of the architecture at Bamboula. She helped see through to publication both Weinberg's and Benson's Bamboula publications and the Youngs' volume on terracotta figurines from the Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates. In 1950, she was named an assistant in the Mediterranean Section at the University Museum—the first of several positions she would hold at the Museum (including Registrar, 1964-77). In that same year, she joined the Penn excavations at Gordion and she would remain an important member of the Gordion team for the rest of her life.
Virginia R. Grace (1901-1994)
Virginia Grace first came to Cyprus in 1931 to excavate at Lapithos, the Museum’s first Cypriot expedition, under the direction of Bert Hodge Hill. The following year she became a staff member at the American excavations at the Athenian Agora, an association she would have for the rest of her life. It was also at the Agora that she began her study of stamped amphora handles, which would be the topic of her Bryn Mawr dissertation, and then become her life’s work. She was at Kourion in 1939 and 1940, and although she returned to Athens for a time, by the fall of 1940, she was back at Kourion and remained there until April of 1942. She handled much of the work involved in processing and cataloging finds from the sites, and contributed a number of photographs. She excavated at Ayios Ermoyenis in 1940-1941 with McFadden, and she also did some exploratory excavation at Bamboula in 1941. One of the last people to leave Kourion in 1942, she helped pack up the finds for safekeeping, and she remained in the Mediterranean throughout World War II.
Joseph S. Last (d. 1969)
Colonel Joseph S. Last served as the excavation architect at Kourion, beginning in 1939. Trained as an architect in Britain, he was a Fellow of the Society of Architects, which later became part of the Royal Institute of British Architects. Last's drawings and plans appear in many Kourion publications, and his knowledge of and long association with the site made him particularly helpful to the scholars, such as Saul S. Weinberg, J. L. Benson, and Suzanne Young and John Young, who published the excavations of McFadden and Daniel after their deaths. He became a permanent resident of Episkopi village and looked after the excavations after the Penn expedition left. The Cyprus government named him the honorary curator of Kourion. Last worked at other sites on Cyprus, and he also served as architect for the Penn excavations at Gordion, Turkey in the 1950s and early 1960s. His article on the ancient water supply at Kourion was published posthumously.
John Howard Young (1914-1977) and Suzanne Halstead Young
John H. Young and Suzanne H. Young came to Kourion in 1939; they had been students at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. They began their study of the terracotta figurines from the Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates and then returned to Athens where they remained until October of 1940. She was educated at Bryn Mawr and Radcliffe, and he received his Ph.D. in 1942 from Johns Hopkins. They returned to Kourion after World War II, and he excavated at the stadium in 1947. Their monumental study of the terracotta figurines from the Apollo Sanctuary was published a few years later.
Porphyrios Dikaios (1904-1971)
One of the most important scholars of Cypriot prehistory, Porphyrios Dikaios also served as Curator of the Cyprus Museum in Nicosia from 1931-1960. After Cyprus gained independence in 1960, Dikaios became Director of the Department of Antiquities and served until 1963. He worked closely with the Penn team at Kourion, and he started excavation at Sotira Teppes in 1947 and continued there for four seasons in the early 1950s. Dikaios's work at Sotira Teppes was published by the University Museum in 1961.
A. H. S. Megaw (1910-2006)
Arthur Hubert Stanley “Peter” Megaw was the first director of the Cyprus Department of Antiquities, and he served from 1936 until 1960, when Cyprus became independent. As director of the Department of Antiquities, Megaw assisted the Penn expedition; a specialist in the Byzantine and Early Christian periods, he excavated the basilica at Kourion. McFadden and Hill had originally excavated there in 1935, but then moved on to other areas of the city. Megaw restarted excavation at the basilica in 1956 and continued in 1958 and in the 1970s. His publication of the Kourion basilica appeared posthumously.
Christos Gregoriou and Christophis Polycarpou
The Cypriots Christos Gregoriou and Christophis Polycarpou were indispensable to the excavation. Gregoriou was with the Penn team from the beginning and ultimately became foreman of the excavations. He also served as custodian of the site during the offseason and carried on in this capacity after 1954. Christophis Polycarpou came to the expedition in the early 1950s as a draughtsman, and the plans that appeared in Weinberg's publication of the architecture at Bamboula, for example, were drawn by Polycarpou. After 1954, he served as custodian of the Sanctuary of Apollo and Head Custodian of the entire Kourion area. He also worked for the Penn excavations at Gordion in 1955 as an assistant to Joseph Last, who served as architect there was well as at Kourion.