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Twentieth-century Economy and Government
The Economy
Government: The Manchu Dynasty
Government: The Communist Period
Government: The Democratic Period
Comparison of the U.S. and Mongolian Constitutions
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Communist Era Government Structure
The 1960-1990 government structure of Mongolia is the best representation of the country's communist organization, since by 1960 the Communist Party leadership was firmly established, the country's economic and social situation had stabilized, and the Soviet model had been implemented. The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) was the only party in power throughout the communist period. The Mongolian people engaged in compulsory, one-choice voting every five years to elect The People's Great Hural (Assembly).*
The People's Great Hural consisted of 370 members of the MPRP elected from each election district (the total population was divided into units of 4,000 people for the elections). It should be noted that the voters confirmed rather than elected the candidate chosen by MPRP for each election district, since they did not have multiple options to choose from and the candidates were to be accepted unanimously. The People's Great Hural, the state's highest legislative body and government organ, ruled the state, established all executive state organizations, and was responsible for ratifying and amending the Constitution and other laws.

"...voters confirmed rather than elected the candidate chosen by MPRP for each election district..."

The People's Great Hural drafted economic development plans for the country; every five years the members ratified a five-year economic plan that set the goals of development for different economic sectors. The Chairman, together with the members of the Presidium of the State Great Hural (see chart), held the ultimate authority over State matters. They had ten permanent offices (such as agriculture, infrastructure and industry, and education) that oversaw and implemented different aspects of state affairs. Under a particularly dictatorial chairman, the Presidium could hold all the power, reducing the Great Hural's responsibilities to a mere unanimous approval. Such one-man dictatorship occurred under Marshal Choibalsan, who held the Chairman's position from 1939 to 1952.*
The People's Great Hural appointed the Council of Ministers, which oversaw agricultural, cultural, educational, science, economic, and political sectors. The State Committee, which functioned under the Council of the Ministers, was in charge of drafting one-year development plans, implementing plans ratified by the Great Hural across the country, and monitoring and evaluating these plans. The State Supreme Justice and State Prosecutors were appointed by the Great Hural and worked according to the instructions provided by the Hural. The Supreme Justice and State Prosecutors appointed the judicial administration on the local level.*
The Ih Hural (Parliament) in the Communist era, courtesy of the National Museum of Mongolian History.
The People's Great Hural also appointed the provincial and district hural members, who were responsible for implementing the laws and decrees of the central government. The provincial and district hurals were in charge of all local political, economic, and social organizations and activities. The executive committees of the provincial and district hurals were elected by the provincial and district hurals to effectively manage the rapidly increasing urban and rural population. These committees served as bureaucratic organizations for the district Hurals, and reported both to the Council of the Ministries and the local Hurals for their activities.
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