University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Athropology


Author: John Alexander

Beyond the Nile

The Influence of Egypt and Nubia in Sub-Saharan Africa

By: John Alexander

A number of developments in human affairs seem to have taken place earlier in the Nile Valley—especially in Egypt—than in other parts of Africa. The four most important of these are the development of agriculture; the formation, based on agriculture, of civilized states; the development of metallurgy (copper, gold, silver, bronze, and iron); and conversion […]