University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Athropology


Author: Michelle I. Marcus

Emblems of Authority

The Seals and Sealings from Hasanlu IVB

By: Michelle I. Marcus

In the ancient Near East, small stamps and cylinders with carved or molded designs were used as emblems of status or author­ity. Their impressions on lumps of clay, called sealings, served to indicate ownership or rights over goods, and to control access to containers or storerooms. While seals and sealings have long held an artistic […]