University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Athropology

Author: Peter S. Wells

West-Central Europe and the Mediterranean

The Decline in Trade in the Fifth Century B.C.

By: Peter S. Wells and Larissa Bonfante

The Problem Massalia, the Greek city on the site of modern Marseille, was founded about 600 B.C. by Ionian Greeks from the city of Phocaea in Asia Minor. The Phocaeans were known in the Greek world particu­larly as traders, and Massalia was estab­lished as a trading city. Unlike colonial settlements established by other Greek cities […]

The Limes and Hadrian’s Wall

Rome's Northern European Boundaries

By: Peter S. Wells

Every wall demands attention and raises questions. Who built it and why? The Limes in southern Germany and Hadrian’s Wall in northern Britain are the most distinctive physical remains of the northern expansion and defense of the Roman Empire. Particularly striking are the size of these monuments today and their uninterrupted courses through the countryside. The Limes, […]