University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Athropology


Author: Robert Maddin

Ingots and the Bronze Age Copper Trade in the Mediterranean

A Progress Report

By: Tamara Stech Wheeler and Robert Maddin and James D. Muhly

The last twenty years have seen an in­crease in scientific studies of archaeological materials resulting from the desire for greater precision in archaeological data. Research on ancient metal objects has contributed signifi­cantly to the data, due to a growing scientific interest in ancient materials and the applica­tion of new techniques of metallurgical anal­ysis to metal […]


The Techniques of the Early Thai Metalsmith

By: Tamara Stech Wheeler and Robert Maddin

Archaeological research in Thailand during the past decade has produced evidence of an early bronze metallurgical tradition, the beginnings of which may date to the fourth millennium B.C. Excavations at Non Nok Tha and Ban Chiang have uncovered a wealth of metal artifacts, including ornaments and weapons, and material related to metalwork­ing, such as moulds […]


Tin in the Ancient Near East

Old Questions and New Finds

By: Robert Maddin and Tamara Stech Wheeler and James D. Muhly

Bronze—an alloy of copper and tin—gave its name to one of the periods of antiquity. It is now clear that pure copper and other alloys of copper were also used during the Bronze Age in the Near East and eastern Mediterranean (roughly 3000-1200 B.C.), so the appellation cannot be considered strictly correct, But as a […]


Copper and Iron Production at Poggio Civitate (Murlo)

Analysis of Metalworking Archaic Etruscan Site

By: P.G. Warden and Robert Maddin and Tamara Stech and James D. Muhly

Since 1966 excavations at Poggio Civitate (Murlo), a site in central Italy about twenty kilometers south of Siena (Fig. 1), have revealed an Etruscan habita­tion of the 7th and 6th centuries B.C. Heretofore our knowledge of the Etruscans, the inhabitants of central Italy during the Iron Age, had been based almost exclu­sively on funerary evidence, […]