University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Athropology


Author: Sam Holzman

The Legacy of Phrygian Culture

By: Kathryn R. Morgan and C. Brian Rose and Sam Holzman and Patricia Kim

The impact of Midas’ reign on the political configuration of Asia Minor is well known; less obvious is the impact of Phrygian culture on subsequent developments in textile production, music, problem-solving slogans, and even the representations of liberty. What is the relationship between flamenco and the Phrygian mode in music, and why were Phrygian caps […]


The Interaction of Empires

By: Anastasia Amrhein and Sophie Crawford Waters and Sam Holzman and Kurtis Tanaka

Much of the richness of Gordion’s history lies in its interaction with the other great kingdoms of the Near East during the Iron Age and Archaic periods (ca. 950–540 BCE). Each of them observed Gordion and the Phrygians through divergent lenses, and the character of the site shifted considerably as the power of these neighboring […]