University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Athropology


Author: Stephen Batiuk

Early Transcaucasian Cultures and Their Neighbors

Unraveling Migration, Trade, and Assimilation

By: Stephen Batiuk and Mitchell S. Rothman

Much of what happens in our modern world depends on how people define their identity (and their loyalties), how they adapt to local conditions, and how they interact economically, politically, and socially to create new impetus and opportunities for change. When people migrate, they affect the places to which they move, causing both the old […]


What Defines the ETC?

By: Stephen Batiuk and Mitchell S. Rothman

ETC cultures were first identified on the basis of their pottery in the Transcaucasus area between the Kura and Araxes Rivers and between the Caspian and Black Seas. Their very distinctive pottery is handmade and predominantly black on the outside and red or black on the inside. It is highly burnished and often has incised […]