Iran — Maps and Chronology

Sites in the Parthian and Sassanian Empires

Originally Published in 1971

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NEOLITHIC ca. 9000 B.C. Hunters and Gatherers of Seal and Red Deer. Belt and Hotu Caves
        ca8000 B.C. Goat herding and clam gathering. Goat herding, mudbrick walls, primitive pottery. Asiab Gant Dareh
ca. 7000 B.C. Goat herding, mudbrick walls, some cereal grain. Guran (lower) Ali Kosh (lower)
ca. 6000 B.C Villages with mixed economy of animal husbandry and cereal farming; painted pottery. Guran, Scarab, All Kosh, Sialk l, Hajji Firuz, Godin, Belt Neolithic, Hotu Neolithic, Yanik
ca. 5000 B.C. Neolithic economy spreading to additional areas crowding surviving hunters and gatherers; new social and technological phenomena emerging; towns growing, extensive trade developing, metallurgy developing, etc. Sousa, Chogha Mish, Sabz, Qabr, Sheykkhan, Jaffarabad, Farukhabad; Godin, Giyan, Siabid; Sialk, Zagheb, Cheshmeh Ali, Yarim, Hotu, Dolma,Yanik, lblis, Bakun, Yahya
EARLY BRONZE ca. 3000 B.C. Fully established towns; fully established metallurgy; long distance trade in raw materials with specialized sources; return trade in man­ufactured goods (?); appearance of writing systems. Yahya, Bampur, Shahr-i Sokhta, lblis; Sousa, Ghazni; Nokhodl, Glyan, Godin
LATER BRONZE ca. 2000 B.C. Local pottery traditions; beginning of the movement of gray pottery wares from north-east Iran toward the west and northwest; major urban centers of Elamite civilization; written records in Elamite language using cuneiform. Susa, Haft, Choga Zambil; Godin, Glyan. Baba Jan; Djamshldi, Bad Flora; Yanik, Goy, Hasanlu, Dinkha; Marlin, Tureng, Shah, Yarlm
IRON I ca. 1350 B.C Establishment of gray-ware tradition in the west; development of local pottery assemblages; shift to painted and buff wares; introduction of iron; appearance of appearance of monumental columned hall architecture. Luristan Bronzes. Marlin, Hasanlu Godin, Baba Jan Nush-l Jan
IRON II ca.1100 B.C Marlin, Hasanlu
IRON III ca. 800 B.C.  Godin, Baba Jan, Nush-l Jan
THE ACHAEMENIDA  ca. 700-675 B.C Hunters and Gatherers of Seal and Red Deer.
 ca. 675-640 Teispes
 ca. 640 Ashurbanipal sacked Susa endingElamite power.
 640-600  Cyrus I
 600-559 Cambyses I
 559-530 Cyrus II, the Great(Achaemenid Empire founded with defeat of Astyages, 550 B.C.)
 530-522 Cambyses II
 522-486 Darius I, the Great
 486-465 Xerxes
 465-423 Artaxerxes
 423-404 Darius II
 404-359 Artaxerxes II
 359-338/7 Artaxerxes III
 338/7-336/5  Arses
 336/5-330  Darius III (murdered by his guards)
 331-323  Alexander the Great in Iran
 323-247  Seleucid Empire
 ca. 247 B.C.-A.D. 224 Parthian Empire
224  Ardashir I founded the Sassanian Empire
 642 Arabs ended Sassanian power at battle of Nihavend
THE MEDES  ca. 715 B.C.  Deioces/Daiaukku
 ca. 674  Phraortes/Kashtaritu
 ca. 652-625  Scythian interregnum
 625-585  Cyaxares/Uvakhshtra (Median Empire founded with sacking of Nineveh, 612)
 585-550  Astyages
IRAN UNDER ISLAM  642-1037  Early Islamic Period
 1038-1225  Seljuks
 1225-1335  Mongols (Hulagu, 1256-1349)
 1370-1447  Timurids (Timur, 1380-1405)
 1502-1737  Safavids (Shah Abbas I, the Great, 1587-1829)
 1750-1789  Zand
 1795-1924  Qatar
 1925-  Pahlavi

Cite This Article

"Iran — Maps and Chronology." Expedition Magazine 13, no. 3-4 (August, 1971): -. Accessed April 18, 2024.

This digitized article is presented here as a historical reference and may not reflect the current views of the Penn Museum.

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