University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Athropology


Author: Barbara J. Hayden

Introduction – Winter 1990

By: Barbara J. Hayden and Jennifer A. Moody and Polymnia Muhly

Generations of historians, archae­ologists, anthropologists, and scien­tists have chosen Crete as the focus of their research. A combination of factors that pertain to Crete alone have engendered both this commit­ment and the resulting contributions to scholarship. The dramatic and rugged topography of Crete (relief up to 2400 m) and relative isolation (separated from the mainland […]


The Vrokastro Survey Project

Providing a Context for an Early Iron Age Site

By: Barbara J. Hayden and Jennifer A. Moody

Of the most dramatic coastlines in Europe is lo­cated along the northern shores of eastern Crete, where sea-weathered rock formations, promon­tories, and small beaches form the Bay of Mirabello. In 1986 a 50 ­square-kilometer area flanking the Bay was selected by Hayden for intensive and systematic survey. Two factors influenced this choice. Many surveys previously […]


Work Continues at Vrokastro 1910-12, 1979-82

A New Plan and Description of the Early Iron Age Settlement

By: Barbara J. Hayden

Richard Seager originally identified the early Iron Age settlement of Vrokastro, on a limestone spur (Fig. 1) just south of the main east-west coastal road between the harbor town of Aghios Nikolaos, to the west, and the village of Pachyammos (“deep sand”) east of the site, near the narrow isthmus of Hierapetra (Fig. 2). Immediately […]


Late Bronze Age Tylissos

House Plans and Cult Center

By: Barbara J. Hayden

Introduction The best-known period of Cretan prehistory is the Minoan Neopalatial or Late Minoan (LM) I period, encompassing approximately one hundred years from the mid-16th century B.C. to the destruction of most of the Minoan palace centers and many towns in the mid-15th century (ca. 1550-1450 B.C.; see Fig. 2). Exca­vations in Crete during this […]


Priniatikos Pyrgos

A Primary Harbor Settlement and Emporium in Eastern Crete

By: Barbara J. Hayden and Yannis Bassiakos and Thanasis Kalpaxis and Apostolos Sarris and Metaxia Tsipopoulou

Priniatikos Pyrgos, a coastal settlement in eastern Crete, sits upon a limestone promontory in the center of a broad beach. Its location—at the nexus of cross-island routes and near rich coastal valleys with abundant water—makes its protected anchorage an ideal spot for a trading emporium. Discoveries here in the early 20th century indicated that the […]