Author: James D. Muhly

The Hittites and the Aegean World

By: James D. Muhly

The first thing to realize about the Hittites is that they are not Hittites. The sad fact is that we are stuck with an incorrect terminol­ogy, but it is too late to do anything about it now. This unfortunate situation came about as a result of several deductions made by earlier scholars which, though entirely […]

Ingots and the Bronze Age Copper Trade in the Mediterranean

A Progress Report

By: Tamara Stech Wheeler and Robert Maddin and James D. Muhly

The last twenty years have seen an in­crease in scientific studies of archaeological materials resulting from the desire for greater precision in archaeological data. Research on ancient metal objects has contributed signifi­cantly to the data, due to a growing scientific interest in ancient materials and the applica­tion of new techniques of metallurgical anal­ysis to metal […]

University Museum-Thai Fine Arts Department Northeast Thailand Archaeological Project


By: James D. Muhly

In this issue of Expedition, designed to be some small tribute to Froelich Rainey for his many years of inspired leadership as director of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, we have the special privilege of publishing three articles dealing with recent archaeological work in northeastern Thailand, especially with material from the sites […]

Tin in the Ancient Near East

Old Questions and New Finds

By: Robert Maddin and Tamara Stech Wheeler and James D. Muhly

Bronze—an alloy of copper and tin—gave its name to one of the periods of antiquity. It is now clear that pure copper and other alloys of copper were also used during the Bronze Age in the Near East and eastern Mediterranean (roughly 3000-1200 B.C.), so the appellation cannot be considered strictly correct, But as a […]

From the Editor

Martin Biddle will take over as director of the University Museum.

By: James D. Muhly

On October 1, 1977, Martin Biddle, of Winchester, England, will take over as director of the University Museum. He will succeed James Pritchard who has served as director since September 30, 1976, following the retirement of Froelich Rainey. Martin Biddle, born in 1937, was educated at Merchant Taylors’ School and at Pembroke College, Cambridge University. […]


By: James D. Muhly

The number of books published in the general field of archaeology seems to increase every year. And every year it becomes more and more important to distinguish between real archaeology, the product of knowledge and experience, and the non-archaeology or pseudo-archaeology being written by those eager to cash in on the ever present fascination with […]

Ancient Cartography

Man's Earliest Attempts to Represent His World

By: James D. Muhly

The remarkable Chinese maps published by Mrs. Bulling in the previous article indicate that in cartography, as in many other things, ancient China was far ahead of contemporary cultures in the western world. This article is an attempt to document that statement by giving a brief survey of the development of cartography in the west […]

Copper and Iron Production at Poggio Civitate (Murlo)

Analysis of Metalworking Archaic Etruscan Site

By: P.G. Warden and Robert Maddin and Tamara Stech and James D. Muhly

Since 1966 excavations at Poggio Civitate (Murlo), a site in central Italy about twenty kilometers south of Siena (Fig. 1), have revealed an Etruscan habita­tion of the 7th and 6th centuries B.C. Heretofore our knowledge of the Etruscans, the inhabitants of central Italy during the Iron Age, had been based almost exclu­sively on funerary evidence, […]

Archaeometry and Shipwrecks

A Review Article

By: James D. Muhly

From Mine to Microscope: Advances in the Study of Ancient Technology edited by Andrew J. Shortland, Ian C. Freestone, and Thilo Rehren (Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2009). 230 pp., numerous black and white photographs and drawings, $120.00, ISBN 978-1-84217-259-9. The volume From Mine To Microscope represents an important collection of articles by colleagues and former students […]

Solomon, the Copper King

A Twentieth Century Myth

By: James D. Muhly

King Solomon is one of those biblical figures known to almost everyone, regardless of religious persuasion or degree of spiritual belief. Most people have at some time in their lives heard stories about Solomon the builder, the architect of the first great temple for the worship of Yahweh in Jerusalem; Solomon the wise man, famous […]

Looking Back at Fifty Years of Nautical Archaeology

A Review Article of Archaeologist Beneath the Sea

By: James D. Muhly

In recent decades nautical archaeology and George Bass have tended to be almost synonymous. To consider one was to engage with the other. The reasons for this are obvious, for Bass practically created the field of nautical archaeology himself, at least in its modern manifestation. Over the past 50 years Bass has been a tireless […]