University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Athropology

Author: Oscar W. Muscarella

Ancient Safety Pins

Their Function and Significance

By: Oscar W. Muscarella

One of the most interesting types of archaeological research is that concerned with tracing the history of a particular object in its development over many centuries and its adaptation in different lands. Much more interesting is this research if the object studied is one which is of general use in contemporary times. Pottery, of course, […]


An Urartian Site in Northwestern Iran

By: Oscar W. Muscarella

Modern archaeological interest in Urartu and its culture has several phases. The first, which lasted until around 1945, started in the 1870’s, when, after several objects reported to have come from Urartu appeared on the market, the British Museum began to dig at Toprakkale in modern Turkey. After a short time, D. Raynolds, an American […]

The Third Lion Bowl From Hasanlu

By: Oscar W. Muscarella

At present there are a few hundred of the popular and well-known group of objects called lion bowls, hand bowls, stoppers, or spoons scattered in museums and private col­lections all over the world, including Japan. Of this number approximately 120+ were excavated and have an objective provenience and authenticity. The sites from which scien­tifically excavated […]

Warfare at Hasanlu in the Late 9th Century B.C.

By: Oscar W. Muscarella

Warfare in the ancient Near East is abundantly docu­mented by written and archaeological evidence. The use of force to settle political disputes, and to validate the role of kings or leaders is not only common but is glorified in both historical texts and representational art. Excavations at the site of Hasanlu have produced information about […]