University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Athropology

Author: Lee Horne

What is Ethnoarchaeology?


By: Lee Horne

In the traditional academic division of labor, ethno­graphers study the present, archaeologists study the past. Both aim to understand and explain human culture and society. Unlike ethnographers, however, archae­ologists work with a very partial kind of evidence: the fragmentary material remains of past human behavior recorded on excavation or survey. As a way of compen­sating […]

Reading Village Plans

Architecture and Social Change in Northeastern Iran

By: Lee Horne

Architecture plays multiple roles in people’s lives. Dwel­lings reflect not only how people live, but also how they think about life and how they choose, con­sciously or not, to represent them­selves to others. Thus the domestic architecture of ancient sites offers much more that a spatial and chrono­logical context for other kinds of artifacts. Some […]

Focus on Fieldwork


By: Lee Horne

This issue of Expedition focuses on five very different kinds of fieldwork projects. All are connected in one way or another with The University Museum and its research staff, its archives, or its collections. In the first article, Barbara Roll Dells the story of the long-term relationship between the people of a New Guinea village and […]

Return to Caracol

Behind the Scenes

By: Lee Horne

In September of 1951. The University Museum received a 20­ton shipment of limestone monuments. most of them in frag­ments, from the ancient Maya site of Caracole, Belize (see Fig 1). Excavated by American Section curator Linton Satterthwaite and presented to the Museum by the government of British Honduras, thee had been cleared, drawn, photographed under […]

Introduction – Spring 1994

By: Lee Horne

This special Expedition on Native Fairs and Markets of the Southwest takes issues of tradition and innovation, preservation and change, and the conflict between Euro-American and Pueblo values and looks at them in five different settings. The articles are based on papers read at a symposium organized by issue editor Bruce Bernstein for the American […]

Cultural and Ecological Perspectives from the Turan Program, Iran

By: Brian I. Spooner and Lee Horne

Introduction The Historical Significance of Deserts A zone of arid and semi-arid country stretches from the Atlantic through north­ern Africa and the Middle East into Central Asia and India. Besides the Sahara and the Arabian and Iranian deserts it includes vast areas which although not totally barren are subject to low and unreliable rainfall. They […]

Dryland Settlement Location

Social and Natural Factors in the Distribution of Settlements in Turan

By: Lee Horne

Settlement in Turan takes three principal forms: year-round permanent villages, summer milking stations, and winter sheep stations. This three-way division follows local usage in distinguishing among sites on the basis of seasonality of occupation and activities, but they usually differ in a number of other ways as well: size and composition of social groups, location […]

Village Morphology

The Distribution of Structures and Activities in Turan Villages

By: Lee Horne

The thirteen villages of central Tauran are small, highly nucleated, and irregular in plan. Beginning from the foothills of Mount Peighambar at the southwest, they lie scattered across the plain as it slopes down to the edge of the sand sea to the north. Viewed from the mountain’s heights, each village is marked by a […]

Glass in the Roman World

By: Lee Horne

In the fall of 1997, more than 180 Roman glass ves­sels from the University of Pennsylvania Museum will be placed on display—most for the first time ever. The exhibition, Roman Glass: Reflections on Cultural Change, is being organized and curated by Stuart Fleming, Scientific Director of MASCA here at the Museum and Guest Editor of […]

Fuel For The Metal Worker

The Role of Charcoal and Charcoal Production In Ancient Metallurgy

By: Lee Horne

As an accidental by-product of combus­tion, wood charcoal has certainly been known for as long as fire itself. Very prob­ably its peculiar properties, such as smoke­lessness and high burning temperature, were appreciated early on and even taken advantage of from time to time. At some unknown point in the past, however, charcoal began to be […]

Ur and Its Treasures

The Royal Tombs

By: Lee Horne

Alder Sumer lay in lower Mesopotamia, an arid land broken by belts of green along the banks of its canals and waterways and, to the southeast, the marshes and islands of the Shan al-Arab delta (see map on p. 3). Sumer was occupied as early as the 7th millennium BC. By 2500 BC it had […]

Artisans and Archaeologists

A Special Section on the Study of Crafts in India

By: Lee Horne

Observing a skilled artisan at work brings to the viewer an understanding that is bath aesthetic and intellectual, and that is absorbed through avenues other than words. It is the way apprentices around the world have traditionally learned their crafts. For scholars, the study of material culture is enhanced enormously by direct observation. It can […]

The Brasscasters of Dariapur, West Bengal

Artisans in a Changing World

By: Lee Horne

In the spring of 1988, Sri Haradhan Karmakar (Figs. 1,2), a brasscaster from West Bengal, came to Philadelphia to participate in the Festival of India exhibit, Mahamaya, at the Port of History Museum. During his stay, he came twice to cast his molds in the courtyard of The University Museum as a demonstrator for the […]

Brasscasting in Dariapur

By: Lee Horne

The following description briefly outlines the stages of dhokra brass-casting as carried out by Dariapuri artisans today. Variations in materials and minor points of technique appear in other parts of the region, but the basic steps remain the same. First a clay core is modeled to rough out the object. The core is smoothly finished […]