University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
29276

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76977
76597
55351
55352
Object Number: C66A
Current Location: China Gallery
Currently On Display
Culture:Chinese
Buddhist
Provenience: China
Hebei
Yizhou
Period: Liao Dynasty (uncertain)
Jin Dynasty (uncertain)
Date Made: 10th Century - 13th Century
Early Date: 907
Late Date: 1234
Section:Asian
Materials:Clay
Glaze
Technique:Fired
Glazed
Three Color Glaze
Iconography:Luohan
Height: 105cm
Width: 64cm
Credit Line:Gift of A. G. Worch, 1914
Other NumberGETZ 1 - Other Number

Description

Pottery figure of luohan found in cave near Yizhou, present day Yixian county in Hebei province. Soft white pottery with a polychrome glaze. Somewhat larger than life size. The Luohan is seated cross-legged in the conventional attitude of meditation. Luohans, also known as arhats, are accomplished Buddhist disciples. They are one of the only Buddhist images that offer a sculptor the opportunity for realism. The portrait-like qualities of this luohan, with his unique and expressive facial features, are emphasized to convey his mortality. He wears an outer garment called the kāṣāya (Chinese: jiasha), which is draped to purposely show the right shoulder and arm, revealing the green undergarment, a symbol that he is trying to help save sentient beings. This luohan was originally part of a group of sixteen or eighteen figures, although luohan groups can reach as many as five hundred. Luohan like this often were placed along the sidewalls in a monastery hall. Eight of the group survive in other collections, including the British Museum, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery, the Royal Ontario Museum, the Matsukata Collection and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.


Current & Past Exhibitions:

Chinese Rotunda (1968)View Objects in Exhibition
Chinese Halls (1941 - 1966)View Objects in Exhibition
Exhibition of the Art of the Far East ( Dec 1914)View Objects in Exhibition
Harrison Chinese Rotunda Inaugural Exhibition ( Feb 1916)View Objects in Exhibition

Bibliography:

[Book] Hsu, Eileen Hsiang-ling. 2016. Monks in Glaze: Patronage, Kiln Origin, and Iconography of the Yixian Luohans. Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Steinhardt, Nancy S. 2010. "The Luohan that Came from Afar". Expedition: The Magazine of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. 52 (3): 7-8. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: pg. 7View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Steinhardt, Nancy S. 2008. "The Chinese Rotunda". Arts of Asia. 38 (5): 83-95. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: Pg. 84, Fig. 14View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Smithies, Richard. 2001. "A Luohan from Yizhou in the University of Pennsylvania Museum". Orientations. 32 (2): 51-56. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: 51View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Book] Horne, Lee C. 1985. Introduction to the Collections of The University Museum. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: 60View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Jayne, Horace H. F. 1941. The Chinese Collections of The University Museum: A Handbook of the Principal Objects. The University Museum Bulletin. 9 (2-3) Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: FrontispieceView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Jayne, Horace H. F. 1939. Chinese Art at the University Museum. Parnassus. 11 (1) Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: 7-11View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Gray, Basil. 1936. Chinese Sculpture: Examples at Burlington House. The Connoisseur: An Illustrated Magazine for Collectors. Volume 97 (February) Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: pg. 64, pg. 76 (ill.)View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Catalogue] Royal Academy of Arts. 1935. Catalogue of the International Exhibition of Chinese Art. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: Pg. 209, No. 2438, Pg. 224, 2438 (illustration)View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Jayne, Horace H. F. 1935. The Museum's Loan to Burlington House ( for International Exhibition of Chinese Art held in London 1935-36). The University Museum Bulletin. 6 (1) Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: 7-11, pl. 6.View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Springer, Anton. 1929. Die ostasiatische Kunst, in 1929. Handbuch der Kunstgeschichte. Volume 6. 43, 50, pl. 68. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: 111, 112View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Book] March, Benjamin. 1929. China and Japan in our Museums. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: 88View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Catalogue] Getz, John. 1917. The University Museum Section of Oriental Art. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: No. 1, page 177View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Bishop, Charles W. 1916. Notes on Chinese Statuary. The Museum Journal. Volume VII (No. 3): 152-177. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: 163, figure 165View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Sayce, A. H. 1916. Oriental Art in the University Museum. The Museum Journal. Volume VII (No. 3): 149-151. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: Fig. 165View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Book] Hobson, Robert L. 1915. Chinese Pottery and Porcelain : An Account of the Potter's Art in China From Primitive Times to the Present Day. Volume 1. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: 35View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Bishop, Charles W. 1914. A Pottery Statue of A Lohan. The Museum Journal. Volume V (No. 3) Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: 129-135, fig. 69.View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Catalogue, Exhibition] University of Pennsylvania. 1914. Catalogue of an Exhibition of the Art of the Far East. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: No. 7View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Kummel, Otto. 1914. Die Ausstellung Der Sammlung Perzynski Im Berliner Kunstgewerbemuseum. Ostasiatische Zeitschrift. Jahrg. 2 (Heft 4 Januar/Maerz): 457-461. General ReferenceView Objects related to this General Reference
[Article] Perzynski, Friedrich. 1913. Jagd auf Gotter. Die neue Rundschau. (October) Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: 1427View Objects related to this Actual Citation

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