University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
193243

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56120
77640
48949
29256
Object Number: C395
Current Location: China Gallery
Currently On Display
Culture:Chinese
Provenience: China
Shaanxi
Xi'an
Zhaoling
Period: Tang Dynasty
Date Made: 649 AD
Early Date: 649
Late Date: 649
Section:Asian
Materials:Limestone
Technique:Carved
Bas Relief
Iconography:Tang Taizong Horse
General Qiu Xinggong
Horse
Saluzi
飒露紫
Height: 172.7cm
Length: 207cm
Width: 43.2cm
Credit Line:Purchased from C. T. Loo; Subscription of Eldridge R. Johnson, 1920

Description

After consolidating the Tang Empire, Emperor Taizong ordered six large stone panels to be carved with the portraits of his favorite horses. These were the horses he had ridden in overcoming his rivals and securing the borders of the country. From the laudatory poem he composed for each horse, we believe we can identify the two in our collection. The relief shown here depicts "Autumn Dew," also known as "Whirlwind Victory." Historical records say he was ridden in battle by the emperor during a great siege, when, after being stuck with an arrow, the emperor was forced to dismount and switch horses with his general, Qiu Xinggong. The general is shown here pulling the arrow out of Autumn Dew's chest while the horse stoically bears the pain.

The six horse reliefs were placed outside Taizong's tomb on an altar meant for memorial ceremonies. They stood there for over a thousand years worshipped by imperial and common people alike. Like their master, the horses had become divine in the minds of the Chinese people. They continue to hold a special place in their hearts to this day.


Current & Past Exhibitions:

Chinese Rotunda (1968)View Objects in Exhibition
Chinese Halls (1941 - 1966)View Objects in Exhibition
In A Rush? Take a Quick Tour of The Museum ( Sep 1996 - Jun 1997)View Objects in Exhibition
Silk Road Highlights Supplement (10 Feb 2011)View Objects in Exhibition

Bibliography:

[Book] Dorling Kindersley Limited. 2014. History of the World in 1,000 Objects. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: Page 162 Top row, third from leftView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Zhou, Xiuqin. 2009. The Mausoleum of Emperor Tang Taizong. Sino-Platonic Papers. 187 Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Steinhardt, Nancy S. 2008. "The Chinese Rotunda". Arts of Asia. 38 (5): 83-95. Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Zhou, Xiuqin. 2005. Excavations at Zhaoling, Shaanxi, China: More Light on the Museum's Chinese Horse Reliefs. Expedition: The Magazine of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. 47 (2): 38-39. Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Zhou, Xiuqin. 2001. "Emperor Taizong and His Six Horses". Orientations. 32 (2): 40-46. Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Book] Horne, Lee C. 1985. Introduction to the Collections of The University Museum. Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Jayne, Horace H. F. 1941. The Chinese Collections of The University Museum: A Handbook of the Principal Objects. The University Museum Bulletin. 9 (2-3) Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Fernald, H. E. 1941. In Defense of the Horses of T'ang T'ai Tsung. The University Museum Bulletin. 9 (4): 18-28. Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Fernald, Helen E. 1936. The Sculpture. The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs. 68 (394): 22-30. Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Ferguson, John C. 1936. The Six Horses of T'ang T'ai Tsung. Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Volume 67 Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Jayne, Horace H. F. 1935. The Museum's Loan to Burlington House ( for International Exhibition of Chinese Art held in London 1935-36). The University Museum Bulletin. 6 (1) Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Fernald, Helen E. 1935. The Horses of T'ang T'ai Tsung and the Stele of Yu. Journal of the American Oriental Society. Volume 55 (No. 4 Dec.): 420-428. Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Catalogue] Royal Academy of Arts. 1935. Catalogue of the International Exhibition of Chinese Art. Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Springer, Anton. 1929. Die ostasiatische Kunst, in 1929. Handbuch der Kunstgeschichte. Volume 6. 43, 50, pl. 68. Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Book] March, Benjamin. 1929. China and Japan in our Museums. Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Book] Siren, Osvald. 1925. Chinese sculpture from the fifth to the fourteenth century; over 900 specimens in stone, bronze, lacquer and wood, principally from northern China. Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Book] Ashton, Leigh. 1924. An Introduction to the Study of Chinese Sculpture. Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Book] Munsterberg, Oskar. 1924. Chinesische Kunstgeschichte. Volume 1. Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Book] Bushell, Stephen W. Chinese Art. Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Waley, Arthur. 1923. T'ai Tsung's Six Chargers. The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs. Volume 43 (No. 246) Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Pelliot, Paul. 1923. Les statues en "laque seche" dans l'ancien art chinois. Journal Asiatique. (April - June): 181-207. Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Bishop, Charles W. 1918. Horses of T'ang T'ai Tsung. The Museum Journal. Volume IX (Nos. 3-4) Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Book] Chavannes, Edouard. 1909. Mission Archeologique dans la Chine Septentrionale. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: Plate: 288 No. 440View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Reinach, Salomon. 1900. Le Representation du Galop dans l'Art Ancien et Moderne. Revue Archeologique. 3d ser. (XXXVI) Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation

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