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Relief

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Object Number:C396
Current Location: Asia Galleries
Currently On Display
Culture:Chinese
Provenience: China
Shaanxi
Xi'an
Zhaoling
Period: Tang Dynasty
Date Made: 649 CE
Early Date: 649
Late Date: 649
Section:Asian
Materials:Limestone
Technique:Carved
Bas Relief
Iconography:Tang Taizong Horse
Horse
Quanmaogua
拳毛騧
Height: 166.4 cm
Length: 207 cm
Width: 44.4 cm
Credit Line:Purchased from C. T. Loo; Subscription of Eldridge R. Johnson, 1920

Description

The Taizong Emperor made his reputation as a great military leader who, together with his father, founded the Tang dynasty in 618 CE. Of the thousands of horses who aided the Emperor in his quest for territory and military supremacy only six were chosen to be enshrined at his Mausoleum, Zhaoling. Not only did each horse have its own name and unique set of attributes, they each received a laudatory poem composed by the Emperor. Their exploits come down to us through written accounts of the battles in which they played a decisive role. Each of the horses depicted on a relief was instrumental in one of Taizong’s major victories. The horse depicted here is “Quanmaogua” whose name refers to his curly hair. The horse is shown wounded by nine arrows, six in the front and three in the back, but still walking briskly and with a spirit that defies his wounds.

Current & Past Exhibitions:

Chinese Rotunda (1968) View Objects in Exhibition
Chinese Halls (1941 - 1966) View Objects in Exhibition
In A Rush? Take a Quick Tour of The Museum ( Sep 1996 - Jun 1997) View Objects in Exhibition

Bibliography:

[Article] Zhou, Xiuqin. Apr 2009. "The Mausoleum of Emperor Tang Taizong". Sino-Platonic Papers. Philadelphia. University of Pennsylvania. Vol. 187. Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Steinhardt, Nancy S. 2008. "The Chinese Rotunda". Arts of Asia. Kowloon. Arts of Asia Publications, Ltd. Vol. 38. no. 5. pg. 83-95 Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: Pg. 95, Fig. 32View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Zhou, Xiuqin. 2005. "Excavations at Zhaoling, Shaanxi, China: More Light on the Museum's Chinese Horse Reliefs". Expedition: The Magazine of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Philadelphia. The University Museum. Vol. 47. no. 2. pg. 38-39 Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Zhou, Xiuqin. 2001. "Emperor Taizong and His Six Horses". Orientations (Hong Kong). Hong Kong. Orientations Magazine Ltd. Vol. 32. no. 2. pg. 40-46 Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: 41View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Book] Madeira, Percy C. 1964. Men in Search of Man: The First Seventy-Five Years of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania.. University of Pennsylvania Press. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: p. 91View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Jayne, Horace H. 1941. "The Chinese Collections of The University Museum: A Handbook of the Principal Objects". The University Museum Bulletin. Philadelphia. The University Museum. Vol. 9. no. 2-3. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: Pg. 48 Fig. 46View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Fernald, Helen E. 1941. "In Defense of the Horses of T'ang T'ai Tsung". The University Museum Bulletin. Philadelphia. The University Museum. Vol. 9. no. 4. pg. 18-28 Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: 18-28View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Ferguson, John C. 1936. "The Six Horses of T'ang T'ai Tsung". Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Vol. 67. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: pp. 1-8, pls. V-VIView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Fernald, Helen E. 1935. "The Horses of T'ang T'ai Tsung and the Stele of Yu". Journal of the American Oriental Society. Vol. 55. no. No. 4 Dec.. pg. 420-428 Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: Fig. 2View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Jayne, Horace H. 1935. "The Museum's Loan to Burlington House ( for International Exhibition of Chinese Art held in London 1935-36)". The University Museum Bulletin. Philadelphia. The University Museum. Vol. 6. no. 1. pg. 17-21 Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: pp. 7-11, pl. 6View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Ferguson, John C. 1931. "The Six Horses at the Tomb of the Emperor T'ai Tsung of the T'ang Dynasty". Eastern Art. Philadelphia. College Art Association of America. Vol. 3. pg. 61-71 Actual CitationView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Springer, Anton. 1929. "Die ostasiatische Kunst". Handbuch der Kunstgeschichte. Leipzig. Alfred Kroner Verlag. Vol. 6. pg. 43, 50, pl. 68 Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: pp. 49, 54View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Book] March, Benjamin. 1929. China and Japan in our Museums.. New York. American Council, Institute of Pacific Relations. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: p. 87View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Book] Siren, Osvald. 1925. Chinese sculpture from the fifth to the fourteenth century; over 900 specimens in stone, bronze, lacquer and wood, principally from northern China.. London. E. Benn, Ltd. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: pg. 116, Plate 426BView Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Book] Munsterberg, Oskar. 1924. Chinesische Kunstgeschichte.. Esslingen a. N. : P. Neff. Vol. 1. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: p. 162, abb. 123View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Book] Ashton, Leigh. 1924. An Introduction to the Study of Chinese Sculpture.. London. E. Benn, Ltd. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: pl. 47View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Waley, Arthur. 1923. "T'ai Tsung's Six Chargers". The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs. London. Vol. 43. no. No. 246. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: pp. 117-118View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Pelliot, Paul. 1923. "Les statues en "laque seche" dans l'ancien art chinois". Journal Asiatique. Paris. Vol. (April - June). pg. 181-207 Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: pp. 202View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Bishop, Carl W. 1918. "Horses of T'ang T'ai Tsung". The Museum Journal. Philadelphia. The University Museum. Vol. IX. no. Nos. 3-4. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: 265-272, figs. 75, 76View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Book] Chavannes, Edouard. 1909. Mission Archeologique dans la Chine Septentrionale.. Paris. E. Leroux. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: Plate: 289, No. 442View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Book] Bushell, Stephen W. 1904. Chinese Art.. London. Victoria and Albert Museum. Vol. Vol. 1. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: p. 43, Fig. 18View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Reinach, Salomon. 1901. "Le Representation du Galop dans l'Art Ancien et Moderne". Revue Archeologique. Vol. T.38. no. Janvier-Juin. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: 92View Objects related to this Actual Citation

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