University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
Object Number: C229
Current Location: Collections storage
Provenience: China
Period: Ming Dynasty
Date Made: Ming Dynasty
Early Date: 1368
Late Date: 1644
Iconography:Vairochana Buddha
Height: 152cm
Credit Line:The Chinese Expedition, Charles W. Bishop, 1916
Other NumberGETZ 32 - Other Number


Gilt bronze statue of Vairochana Buddha. This image of Vairochana represents the central Buddha of the Tiantai and Huayan sects. This figure is believed to be the spiritual foundation from which all other Buddhas emanate, and is depicted in samboghakaya form, in the “enjoyment body” taken after full spiritual awakening. The supreme enlightenment of all the Buddhas is represented here by the hand gesture, called uttarabodhi mudra. Figure is of heroic size seated cross-legged upon a lotus throne which has four rows of petals. The soles of the feet are turned upward and the crown has five jewelled peaks each containing a small seated Buddha. Other physical attributes include long ears, a broad forehead, eyes downcast, and a small raised urna.


[Article] Abe, Stanley K. 2009. Collecting Chinese Sculpture: Paris, New York, Boston, in Chong, Alan & Murai, Noriko. 2009. Journeys East: Isabella Stewart Gardner and Asia. 432-442. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: Pg. 438, Fig. 11View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Catalogue] Getz, John. 1917. The University Museum Section of Oriental Art. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: p. 186, No. 32View Objects related to this Actual Citation
[Article] Bishop, Charles W. 1916. Notes on Chinese Statuary. The Museum Journal. Volume VII (No. 3): 152-177. Actual Citation : Page/Fig./Plate: 175, Figure 172View Objects related to this Actual Citation

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