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Babylonian Section

The Tragic History Of Ibi-Sin, King Of Ur

By: Leon Legrain

Volume XVII / Number 4

During the last two seasons at Ur, and especially during the recent campaign, the Joint Expedition of the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania and the British Museum recovered several thousand tablets. These documents written in the Babylonian and Sumerian languages divide themselves into two main groups: historical texts and business records. Dr. Legrain who, […]


King Nabonidus and the Great Walls of Babylon

By: Leon Legrain

Volume XIV / Number 4

THE extension of the walls of the great city of Babylon after King Nabuchadnezzar is a vexed question, which may derive some light from an inscription of Nabonidus on a clay barrel shaped cylinder entered in the Museum collections before 1900. The text here first translated strangely confirms the results of the German survey and […]


The Golden Boats of Marduk and Nabu in Babylon

By: Leon Legrain

Volume XIV / Number 4

Cylinder of Nebuchadnezzar.Museum Object Number: B9 One of the finest and for several reasons a unique document of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, has been preserved in the University Museum for over 35 years but never entirely deciphered. And yet its description of the gorgeous temples of Marduk and Nabû and of their splendid furniture, especially […]


The Inscriptions of the Kings of Agade

The Missing Fragment of the Nippur Tablet. CBS. 13972

By: Leon Legrain

Volume XIV / Number 3

ABOUT B. c. 2600, a scribe of the temple of Enlil at Nippur who had the training of an historian, compiled on a large 28 column tablet, the inscriptions on the stelae, on the statues and their pedestals, and on other votive monuments erected by the kings of Agade in the courts of the temple […]


Some Seals of the Babylonian Collections

By: Leon Legrain

Volume XIV / Number 2

The seals and seal impressions are the real jewels of the Babylonian Collections of the Museum. Up to the present day, they number about 804 stone seals of various forms, 3 stone or metal rings, and 226 seal impressions on clay. They have been acquired since 1888, by purchase, by excavation mainly at Nippur, and […]


Five Royal Seal Cylinders

By: Leon Legrain

Volume XIII / Number 1

I The Oldest Dated Royal Seal. The Seal of Basha-Enzu, B. C. 2900. ART and history are interested in this small monument that haslain unconspicuous in the Collections of the Museum for over30 years. It is a limestone cylinder seal, 29 x 16″mm, that was bought by Dr. Haynes at Baghdad on Dec. 23, 1890. […]


A New Fragment of Chronology

By: Leon Legrain

Volume XII / Number 1

THE DYNASTY OF AGADE. At a few months interval, our material for reconstructing the early Sumerian chronology has been increased by the recovery of a small fragment. It belongs to the tablet published in the last number of the MUSEUM JOURNAL. It is indeed the lower part of cols. 7 and 8, which gives us […]


Reconstructing Ancient History

By: Leon Legrain

Volume XI / Number 4

I Portrait of a King Who Reigned 4130 Years Ago Ibi-Sin, the last king of Ur, began to reign in 2210 B.C. The I only portrait of him is one stamped on a lump of clay, taken from the excavations at Nippur in Babylonia and preserved in the University Museum. Other examples of the discovery […]


Nippur’s Gold Treasure

By: Leon Legrain

Volume XI / Number 3

As the goddess of love Ishtar descended into Hades in quest of her youthful lover Tammuz, she had to divest herself of her queenly attire, her crown, earrings, necklace, breastplate, bracelets and anklets, girdle of precious stones; and when she passed the seventh gate, she was nude. For such is the rule of Hades. This […]


The Oldest Written Code

By: V. Scheil

Volume XI / Number 3

In a volume of SELECTED SUMERIAN AND BABYLONIAN TEXTS published by the University Museum, Henry Frederick Lutz has carefully copied, among many others, a few texts rightly catalogued by Dr. Stephen Langdon as SUMERIAN CODE OF LAWS (Nos. 100, 101, 102 and p. 128). They are copies from tablets (probably school work) originating from Nippur […]