History & Archaeology

The Funeral in Tumulus MM

Within the wooden chamber in Tumulus MM, a body of a man aged 60 – 65 had been placed on a thick pile of dyed textiles inside a unique log coffin. Although the body of the king had disintegrated, patterns of purple and brown dyes were seen on the textile bedding when the tomb was first opened. The king’s coffin, which had probably been used in a public viewing ceremony before being carried into the tomb, was accompanied by 14 pieces of wood furniture. These are best interpreted as serving and

Midas City

One of the major Phrygian sites lies in the eastern outskirts of the Phrygian Highlands, in the area between Afyon and Eskişehir. The ancient name of the site is unknown, but since the late 19th century it has been referred to by its nickname, “Midas City.” W. M. Ramsay coined this label because the name of Midas was inscribed above a huge rock-cut façade at the site.

Midas City is located on a comparatively low but very large outcropping formed of volcanic tuff. The site was excava

The Phrygian Sanctuary at Dümrek

The sanctuary of Dümrek is located on a bend of the Sakarya River approximately 33 km north of the Phrygian capital of Gordion, between Ankara and Eskişehir. The site preserves one of the most remarkable ancient sanctuaries in central Anatolia, with rock-cut monuments of varying size and shape. Dümrek was always a popular destination for daytrips by members of the Gordion Excavation Project since the early years of Rodney Young’s campaign, but the archaeological remains were not systematicall