Many Mongolians formed their own liberation organizations. One
was the Mongolian Peoples' Party (MPP). With the support of the
Bogd Khan and the Mongolian princes, the MPP sent a small delegation
to Russia to request aid from the Communist Russians in organizing
the liberation army and supplying it with ammunition. Beginning
in February 1921, the Mongolian rebels with Communist support began
to fight against the Chinese. By the summer, so many Mongolians
had joined the rebels that the Chinese were repelled and forced
out of Mongolia.
On July 11, 1921 Mongolia proclaimed its independence once again.
The Bogd Khan regained the throne and Mongolia became a limited
monarchy, with the People's Government in charge of state affairs
and the Bogd Khan a symbolic state figure and religious leader.
Once more, China refused to recognize Mongolia as an independent
nation. So Mongolia turned to the new Soviet Union again.
On November 5, 1921 a small delegation met with Lenin, head of
the Soviet government, and forged a Mongolian-Soviet treaty of mutual
recognition and friendship. At this time Lenin commended the Mongolians'
national liberation struggle and advised them to develop the country
along Communist lines. * Within months of the Bogd Khan's
natural death, the MPP called a National Assembly that established
the Mongolian People's Republic, a Communist-oriented government.