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Vol. 1 / No. 1

By: Edwin M. Shook

The Temple of the Red Stela: An important new monument is unearthed at the Maya city of Tikal in Guatemala.

Archaeological digging is a good deal like prospecting– you never know when and where you are going to strike paydirt. […]

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Vol. 1 / No. 1

By: Marianne L. Stoller

Te-moana-nui-o-Kiwa: To the Polynesians the Pacific Ocean is Te-moana-nui-o-Kiwa, the Great Sea of Kiwa. This article, the first of three, tells how some of its many islands were discovered and named.

For the past year one of the projects of the University Museum has been the renovation and remodeling of the […]

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Vol. 1 / No. 1

How Is Your Museum I.Q.?

Which of the four identifications given for each of these pictures is correct? 1. Stone slab made for the tomb […]

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Vol. 1 / No. 1

By: Rodney S. Young

The Gordion Tomb: The successful search at Gordion in Turkey for the tomb of a king who reigned in the eighth century before Christ.

The Museum expedition first went to work at Gordion in 1950. Always before the eyes of its members stood the […]

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picture of Froelich Rainey

Vol. 1 / No. 1

By: Froelich Rainey

Editorial

Expedition, a revised form of the University Museum Bulletin, is designed for the public. It will continue as a quarterly […]

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Museum Exterior

Vol. 1 / No. 1

Museum News – Fall 1958

Hasanlu, Iran Mr. Dyson’s expedition has made important discoveries. He writes that in the course of work on the city […]

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Happy new year written in different languages.

Vol. 1 / No. 2

Happy New Year!

An old greeting used by many people through the centuries. Here are some of the ways it is written. How […]

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image of Omai

Vol. 1 / No. 2

By: Marianne L. Stoller

Te-moana-nui-o-Kiwa

The second in a series of articles about the finding and naming of some of the islands in the Pacific- […]

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Vol. 1 / No. 2

Museum News – Winter 1959

Drexel Medal Awarded to Dr. A.V. Kidder For the first time since 1903, the year of its first presentation, the […]

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Vol. 1 / No. 2

By: Alfred Kidder, II

Editorial

Anthropologists, archaeologists, and their colleagues in such fields as linguistics, folklore, and ethnomusicology like to get together from time to […]

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By: Froelich Rainey

The Vanishing Art of the Arctic

But of the land on the other side of the bald men none can give any trustworthy account because it […]

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Vol. 1 / No. 2

By: David Crownover

Once and Again

“…During the past summer a large and beautifully lighted room was granted us. Necessary cases were built, and in September […]

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Vol. 1 / No. 2

By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

An Iranian Drinking Vessel

The mountains of western Iran are today the home of sheep-herding tribesmen as they have been since animals were first […]

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Vol. 1 / No. 3

What in the World – Spring 1959

Can you identify the subject of this photograph? Answer on page 40. Did you recognize these sand dunes in the […]

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Vol. 1 / No. 3

By: Marianne L. Stoller

Te-moana-nui-o-Kiwa: The final article in a series about the finding and naming of some of the islands in the Pacific--the Maori great sea of Kiwa.

In previous articles we have considered various discoveries made by five nations–Holland, Spain, Britain, France, and the United States. There […]

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Museum Exterior

Vol. 1 / No. 3

Expedition News – Spring 1959

Tikal, Guatemala Mr. Shook, Field Director of the Tikal Expedition, has just made an exciting discovery–a stela inscribed with a […]

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hassanlu bowl

Vol. 1 / No. 3

By: Edith Porada

The Hasanlu Bowl

One glance at the gold bowl from Hasanlu with its varied scenes of gods, heroes, monsters, and men suffices to […]

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Vol. 1 / No. 3

By: Samuel Noah Kramer

A Sumerian Document with Microscopic Cunieform

The Department of Oriental Antiquities in the Louvre in Paris is the fortunate possessor of the remains of a Sumerian […]

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Photo of men digging

Vol. 1 / No. 3

By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

Digging in Iran: Hasanlu, 1958

Expeditions, especially archaeological ones, often produce unexpected results. The last Hasanlu Expedition was no exception. It started slowly with what […]

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Museum Exterior

Vol. 1 / No. 3

By: Carleton S. Coon

Clever People, These Armenians

Deep in the oven-like summer of 1951 I was obliged, for reasons that have nothing to do with this story, […]

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Vol. 1 / No. 3

Double Trouble

Contamination can be defined variously as pollution, defilement, taint, but to us in the C-14 laboratory it is just double […]

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masks

Vol. 1 / No. 4

Where in the World?

Museum News: Hasanlu, Iran The members of the expedition to Hasanlu, under the leadership of Robert H. Dyson, Jr., arrived […]

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Vol. 1 / No. 4

By: Alfred Kidder, II

Archaeological Visitors

I first became aware of the archaeological visitors (we called them tourists), in the early twenties, when our family used […]

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Photo of woman working with walrus skin.

Vol. 1 / No. 4

By: Robert Ackerman

Siberians of the New World: An archaeologist spends the summer on St. Lawrence Island.

Far to the north in the region of the Bering Straits, Russian and American archaeologists working independently of each other […]

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Benin Artwork Statue

Vol. 1 / No. 4

By: Margaret Plass

The Art of Benin

An evaluation based on discussions with William Fagg, Deputy Keeper of Ethnography in the British Museum. The art of Benin […]

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Vol. 1 / No. 4

By: Kenneth D. Matthews, Jr.

Portrait of a Hero

Between 1931 and 1933 workmen under the direction of Jotham Johnson labored for the University Museum at a Roman site […]

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Vol. 1 / No. 4

By: William R. Coe

Tikal 1959

At this Maya site in northern tropical Guatemala the fourth season of field work under the direction of Edwin M. […]

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Vol. 1 / No. 4

By: Temple Fay, Jack L. Benson and L. Arnold Post

“The Head” – Menander: A Neurosurgeon's Analysis of a Great Stone Portrait

Preface Undoubtedly the most controversial portrait surviving from antiquity is one which exists in many copies and which has most […]

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Vol. 1 / No. 4

Museum News – Summer 1959

Hasanlu, Iran The members of the expedition to Hasanlu, under the leadership of Robert H. Dyson, Jr., arrived in Iran […]

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object #1

Vol. 1 / No. 4

By: David Crownover

Ancient and Primitive Art in Philadelphia Collections

Art of any period or time has been seen to pass through a life cycle: dynamic in youth, overcome by […]

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Vol. 1 / No. 4

By: Temple Fay

Relevant Information About Menander

In general we know comparatively little about the life history and personal traits of ancient worthies. The evidence for Menander […]

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tiwi burial poles

Vol. 2 / No. 1

By: James House, Jr.

Tiwi Burial Poles as Sculpture

Nothing in time so much alters the character of the concretion which is a work of sculpture as technological change, […]

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Museum Exterior

Vol. 2 / No. 1

Expedition News – Fall 1959

The 1959 season’s work of all three of the University Museum Expeditions to the Near East was completed by early […]

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picture of Froelich Rainey

Vol. 2 / No. 1

By: Froelich Rainey

To the Readers of Expedition

To the Readers of Expedition: Because of the increased interest in archaeology and the study of man, The University Museum decided, […]

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Photo of men standing by cellar holes.

Vol. 2 / No. 1

By: James B. Pritchard

The Wine Industry at Gibeon: 1959 Discoveries

In a Near Eastern country such as Jordan an archaeologist learns quickly that it is usually best to discount, if […]

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Vol. 2 / No. 1

By: Alfred Kidder, II

A Mochica Diety

This modelled stirrup-spouted vessel, painted in dark red on cream, is the Museum’s most recent acquisition in the field of […]

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Br. Butt and villagers

Vol. 2 / No. 1

By: William C. Brice

What the British are Doing

This article is the first of a series planned for Expedition to give our readers some knowledge of what other […]

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Vol. 2 / No. 1

By: Rhys Carpenter

The Clue of the Missing Feet

In 438 B.C. there was dedicated in the Parthenon at Athens the colossal gold and ivory statue of Athena, one […]

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Photo of Tiwi children

Vol. 2 / No. 1

By: Jane C. Goodale

The Tiwi Dance for the Dead

From April through August 1954, the National Geographic Society sponsored an expedition to Melville Island, Australia, led by Mr. C. […]

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Photo for Where in the World Game

Vol. 2 / No. 2

Where in the World?

We thought and thought when we first saw the color slide from which this picture was made but couldn’t identify […]

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Vol. 2 / No. 2

Tikal: A Map of the Central Portion of a Famous Maya Ruin in the Lowlands of Guatemala

Mapping at Tikal has been going on since the 1957-58 season. It is a slow, difficult job, made so by […]

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Vol. 2 / No. 2

By: A.V. Kidder

Wanted: More and Better Archaeologists

This article, from The Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 83, and here reprinted under a new title and […]

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Vol. 2 / No. 2

By: Ellen L. Kohler

An Etruscan Tomb-Guardian

The Etruscans are still a mysterious people to us because at the present state of our knowledge we cannot answer […]

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Vol. 2 / No. 2

By: Edwin M. Shook

Tikal Stela 29: The oldest dated Lowland Maya monument is unearthed in the jungles of Guatemala. For a discussion of Maya dates the reader is referred to the accompanying article by Linton Satterthwaite.

Just short of a century ago, in 1864, canal diggers working in the steaming heat of a coastal swamp a […]

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photo of wall

Vol. 2 / No. 2

By: Rodney S. Young

Gordion: Phrygian Construction and Architecture

The traveller in Near Eastern lands cannot help but be struck by the hundreds of ancient mounds–Tels or Tepes or […]

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Vol. 2 / No. 2

By: Linton Satterthwaite

Maya “Long Count” Numbers

The new earliest “Long Count” or “Initial Series” date on Tikal Stela 29 is transcribed as “8.12.14.8.15 13 Men 3 […]

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Vol. 2 / No. 2

By: J. Alden Mason

Louis Shotridge

Formerly the Museum made a practice of having an American Indian as Assistant in the American Section. Dressed in his […]

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Vol. 2 / No. 3

By: Jean Gordon Lee

A Korean Potter’s Masterpiece

Since 1916 a most unusual celadon vase has been in the Museum’s collection. Bought through Joseph Duveen at the time […]

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picture of Froelich Rainey

Vol. 2 / No. 3

By: Froelich Rainey

The Changing Face of Archaeology

Sweeping in over the roof of the jungle, a twin-engined passenger plane settles down on the landing strip hacked out […]

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Museum Exterior

Vol. 2 / No. 3

Expedition News – Spring 1960

Leptis Magna Mr. Brandon Barringer who, with the Museum, is sponsoring the exploration of this site in Libya has given […]

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Vol. 2 / No. 3

By: Kenneth D. Matthews, Jr.

The Embattled Driver in Ancient Rome

As a driver do you become annoyed with present-day traffic conditions? Most probably you do and the same may be […]

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Vol. 2 / No. 3

By: John L. Cotter

Digging an Historical Shrine: Philadelphia's Independence Park

Every now and then a sudden gleam comes to an archaeologist’s eye as he searches a palaeolithic cave deposit, or […]

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Vol. 2 / No. 3

By: David Crownover

The Pink People

Europeans occur in the tribal art of Nigeria as far back as the 17th century when Portuguese sailors navigated the […]

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People laying brickwork.

Vol. 2 / No. 3

By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

The Death of a City

Or ever the silver cord be loosed, or the golden bowl be broken, or the pitcher be broken at the […]

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photo of mosaic

Vol. 2 / No. 4

By: George F. Dales, Jr.

The “Old Fort” at Lahore: Restoration of a Moghul Fortress in West Pakistan

“On Monday, the 9th of the Divine month of Azar…[Nov. 20, A.D. 1620], mounting an elephant of the name of […]

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Dr. Rainey operating the resistivity equipment

Vol. 2 / No. 4

By: Matthew W. Stirling, Froelich Rainey and Matthew W. Stirling, Jr.

Electronics and Archaeology

For centuries men have dreamed of a “divining rod” or device that would indicate the presence of buried treasure in […]

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picture of Froelich Rainey

Vol. 2 / No. 4

By: Froelich Rainey

Archaeological Salvage in Egypt: Editorial

At a recent meeting in the University Museum, Mrs. Nicholas Roosevelt told us that she remembered with nostalgia Sir Leonard […]

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Vol. 2 / No. 4

By: E.N. Brandt

Why I Am a Mummy Duster

This term describes a dozen or two who work one night a week in the University Museum’s  workshop and storage […]

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Vol. 2 / No. 4

Expedition News – Summer 1960

Leptis Magna The Spring issue of EXPEDITION described a lack of success in the first attempts to locate a Phoenician […]

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Vol. 2 / No. 4

By: Alan R. Schulman

A Faience Stela from the New Kingdom

Among the unpublished finds of the University Museum’s excavations at ancient Memphis in 1915-1923 is the faience stela shown here. […]

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4 children

Vol. 2 / No. 4

By: Jane C. Goodale

Sketches of Tiwi Children

Readers of Miss Goodale’s account of Tiwi funeral ceremonies in the Fall 1959 number of EXPEDITION will remember that the […]

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man looking through telescope

Vol. 3 / No. 1

By: Alfred Bendiner

An Archaeologist’s Sketchbook

When Fro Rainey and his staff asked my wife and me to go to Tikal and make an architectural survey […]

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Vol. 3 / No. 1

By: Joseph A. Barone

Patterns in Music

In the story of Man, music has often provided a key to his artistic growth. It has revealed striking similarities […]

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Photo of people in canoe on the water

Vol. 3 / No. 1

By: Ann Chowning

Canoe Making Among the Molima of Fergusson Island

At dusk on May 12, 1958, as I sat on the beach talking with my adoptive family, four beautifully decorated […]

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Vol. 3 / No. 1

Expedition News – Fall 1960

Shipwrecks The return of Mr. George Bass with details of his summer work on the wrecked ship off Finike in […]

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Vol. 3 / No. 1

By: M.E.L. Mallowan

Sir Leonard Woolley

Professor Mallowan, himself a famous archaeologist, writes that in preparing this appreciation of Sir Leonard Woolley for the obituary columns […]

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Vol. 3 / No. 1

By: Brandon Barringer

Finding A Phoenician Colony Part I: The Search

The hunt started nearly two years ago when the Government of Tunisia asked the University Museum to investigate the possibilities […]

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Men lifting stones out of ditch.

Vol. 3 / No. 1

By: Theresa Howard Carter

Finding a Phoenician Colony Part 2: The Discovery

The very afternoon of the Barringers’ departure two of our three high hopes were shattered. The Lisa Sounding revealed a […]

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Vol. 3 / No. 1

By: David Crownover

A Pair of Twins

This poem translated from the Nigerian language group by Roger Wescott propounds a simple truth: it is a good thing […]

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images of flowers

Vol. 3 / No. 2

By: C.L. Lundell

The Flora of Tikal

The popular image of the jungle is one of mystery and romance. Kipling, Conrad, Maugham, and hoses of contemporary and […]

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Images for trivia

Vol. 3 / No. 2

Where in the World?

These pictures are all of sites where the University Museum has worked. Can you select the proper caption for each […]

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Vol. 3 / No. 2

By: George F. Bass

A Bronze Age Shipwreck

Just off Cape Gelidonya, on the southwest coast of Turkey, lies a row of five tiny islands, little more than […]

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Vol. 3 / No. 2

By: Rodney S. Young

Footnote on Griffins

Egnatia lay on the Adriatic coast of southern Italy a few miles above Brundisium (Brindisi) and at the point where […]

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Vol. 3 / No. 2

By: Frances W. James

Beth Shan

The Biblical Book of Samuel tells us that the bodies of Saul and his sons were exposed by the Philistines […]

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drawing of Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Izard

Vol. 3 / No. 2

By: Robert C. Smith

The Ruins of Rome

“Here is to be seen those rare Curiosities that no City in the world can afford the like.” Thus Francis […]

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Vol. 3 / No. 3

By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

An Iranian Gold Piece

Herodotus tells us that when the Persian fleet was wrecked off Magnesia in Thessaly in 492 B.C. on its way […]

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photo of kids.

Vol. 3 / No. 3

By: Robbins Burling

Boys of the Yellow Robe

Last spring I spent a few weeks in Hopong, a market town in the Shan States of Burma. The town […]

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drawing.

Vol. 3 / No. 3

By: Marija Gimbutas

“Timber-graves” in Southern Russia: The Second in a Series on Expeditions Around the World.

As a result of the intrusion of the Kimmerians and Scythians from southern Russia in the late eighth and seventh […]

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Vol. 3 / No. 3

By: G. Roger Edwards

An Ivory Gorgoneion

Of all the sculptural work of Greek antiquity, that in ivory is among the least well known to us from […]

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Vol. 3 / No. 3

Expedition News – Spring 1961

Tikal, Guatemala The Expedition at Tikal which has been at work since the end of January will close its 1961 […]

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Vol. 3 / No. 3

By: Margaret L. Arnott

Easter Eggs and Easter Bread of Southeastern Pennsylvania

Among folklorists it is a well known fact that one does not look in the center to find traditions but […]

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photo of monks

Vol. 3 / No. 4

By: Fred Adelman

The American Kalmyks

After an odyssey of more than three centuries a group of Mongolian Buddhists has come to Philadelphia and nearby New […]

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image of handle

Vol. 3 / No. 4

By: James B. Pritchard

The Bible Reports on Gibeon

A new dimension was added to the archaeological remains at el-Jib by the discovery in 1956 of a handle from […]

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Vol. 3 / No. 4

By: Ina Vanstan

Ancient Peruvian Textile Arts: Patchwork and Tie-dye From Pachacamac

Digging up the past includes more than the actual spade work with the essential on-the-spot record keeping and the basic […]

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Vol. 3 / No. 4

By: William R. Coe

A Sculpture from Mexico

The New World archaeological collections of the University Museum are comprehensive, often superlative. But we are aware of certain shortcomings. […]

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Photo of statue.

Vol. 3 / No. 4

By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

A Visit to a Chittagong Hill Tribe

Much of the initial information gathered on foreign peoples has been derived from the accounts of travelers. Such accounts are […]

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Vol. 3 / No. 4

By: David Crownover

A Mask of Turtle Shell

Between the Cape of York Peninsula in Australia and the southeast tip of land along the Papuan Gulf of New […]

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Vol. 3 / No. 4

By: Alan R. Schulman

Three Shipwrecked Scarabs

Among the objects recovered last summer by a University Museum expedition from a Bronze Age ship lost off Cape Gelidonya, […]

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Vol. 4 / No. 1

By: Lee A. Parsons

A Fiji-Iroquois War Club: An Unusual Case of Diffusion

The museum anthropologist occasionally has the unique opportunity of making inferences in regard to cultural process from the study of […]

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drawing of glyph

Vol. 4 / No. 1

By: Tatiana Proskouriakoff

The Lords of the Maya Realm

We Mayanists spend an inordinate amount of time deciphering half obliterated hieroglyphic texts. Often it seems that our results are […]

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drawing of an object

Vol. 4 / No. 1

By: Thor Heyerdahl

Sea Routes to Polynesia

Sea Routes to Polynesia  was read by Mr. Heyerdahl at a dinner in honor of The Fellows of  The University […]

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Vol. 4 / No. 1

By: Edwin M. Shook and Alfred Kidder, II

The Painted Tomb At Tikal: An important discovery by the Museum's expedition in Guatemala.

One day, perhaps late in March of the year A.D. 457, masons set the final stone in the wall they […]

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Vol. 4 / No. 1

By: MacEdward Leach

The Men Behind the Lore

The folklorist is a prosaic character alongside an archaeologist or ethnologist. Even a handful of arrowheads is likely to arouse […]

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Photo of hat

Vol. 4 / No. 1

By: Ruth Linker

Philippine Hats: On northern Luzon a man's suklang told his age, marital status, and village--and, sometimes, whether he was a successful head-hunter.

Sometime in the second decade of this century, the Misses Elizabeth H. and Sarah L. Metcalf made their way through […]

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Museum Exterior

Vol. 4 / No. 1

Expedition News – Fall 1961

The Ain Shems Collection From 1928 to 1933, the late Dr. Elihu Grant, who was then Professor of Biblical Literature […]

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Vol. 4 / No. 1

By: George Dessart

What in the World: A Television Institution

In the realms with which Expedition is normally concerned, eleven years is not a long time. To the anthropologist, it is […]

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Vol. 4 / No. 2

By: Eugene H. Palatsky

Danish Viking Ships

As Scandinavian life is closely related to the surrounding seas, it is natural for museum explorers in these northern countries […]

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Vol. 4 / No. 2

By: Hattula Moholy-Nagy

A Tlaloc Stela From Tikal

Stela 32 was one of the outstanding finds of the 1961 field season at Tikal. The front of this broken […]

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Photo of people eating on a beach

Vol. 4 / No. 2

By: George F. Dales, Jr.

A Search for Ancient Seaports

The three oldest civilizations of the old world were centered along the great river valleys of the Near and Middle […]

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photo of Tomb

Vol. 4 / No. 2

By: William Kelly Simpson

Nubia: The University Museum - Yale University Expedition

Once before, in the years 1905-1911, the University Museum conducted a series of excavations in Nubia on the occasion of […]

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photo of Temple 78

Vol. 4 / No. 2

By: Edwin M. Shook

Tikal: Problems of a Field Director

In 1955 the Guatemala Government reopened the airfield at Tikal, making possible the initiation of large-scale excavation and reconstruction there. […]

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(Left) the "Stela" (Right) Drawing to show figure.

Vol. 4 / No. 3

By: William Haviland, Jr.

A “Miniature Stela” From Tikal

Three seasons of archaeological work at the site of Tikal, located in the rain forest of Guatemala’s department of the […]

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Photo

Vol. 4 / No. 3

By: Carlo M. Lerici

New Archaeological Techniques and International Cooperation in Italy

During the last quarter of 1961 an important and extraordinary archaeological survey was carried out in Italy. Its importance lies […]

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Vol. 4 / No. 3

By: J. Eric S. Thompson

Convocation Address

At a special Convocation held in the Irvine Auditorium of the University of Pennsylvania on January 20, 1962, in observance […]

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Vol. 4 / No. 3

By: Froelich Rainey

“This Unique Institution…”: Reflections on the 75th Anniversary of the University Museum

This is the 75th Anniversary of the University Museum. It also happens to be the 75th Anniversary of the Sun […]

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Vol. 4 / No. 3

Field Work Around The World

  1888-1900 The Museum’s first field work was at Nippur in southern Iraq where the Temple Library of thousands of […]

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drawing of Great rock-cut Temple, Abu Simbel

Vol. 4 / No. 3

By: David Crownover

Amelia Edwards and the New Aswan Dam

The second river of Paradise is said to have run through the Biblical land of Kush or Nubia. Modern Nubia […]

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Vol. 4 / No. 3

By: Ljubica D. Popovich

A Byzantine Cameo

One of the most important glyptic collections in the United States is the Maxwell Sommerville Collection at the University Museum. […]

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image of illustration

Vol. 4 / No. 3

Apache Playing Cards

Hernando Cortes, through the soldier adventurers who accompanied him, is probably responsible for first introducing playing cards as a form […]

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Photo of wooden posts

Vol. 4 / No. 4

By: Rodney S. Young

Gordion: Phrygian Construction and Architecture II

An earlier essay in Expedition (Vol. 2, No. 2, Winter 1960) attempted to answer the favorite question of visitors to almost […]

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Vol. 4 / No. 4

By: Margaret Lavin

The Pharaoh’s Last Death

 (The Egyptian Government plans to inundate Abu Simbel, in Nubia, for irrigation purposes, and the ancient monuments of the kings […]

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Photo of woman making pottery

Vol. 4 / No. 4

By: Ruben E. Reina

The Ritual of the Skull in Peten, Guatemala

The history of the Department of Peten in Guatemala has unique features when compared to the rest of Mesoamerica. These […]

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Vol. 4 / No. 4

By: Maurits N. van Loon

A Lion Bowl From Hasanlu

From June to September, 1960, Robert H. Dyson, Jr. led the fifth campaign of excavations at Hasanlu, south of Lake […]

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Photo of stela

Vol. 4 / No. 4

By: William Kelly Simpson

Nubia: 1962 Excavations at Toshka and Arminna

The excavations of the Peabody Museum of Yale University and the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania entered their […]

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Vol. 4 / No. 4

By: David Crownover

Take the Chair

Only in recent times has the chair become a household necessity. From antiquity the chair was reserved for persons of […]

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Vol. 4 / No. 4

Expedition News – Summer 1962

The Libyan Expedition For the past two years the Museum has continued its researches in Libya at the large ancient city of […]

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Photos of pottery

Vol. 5 / No. 1

By: William F. Albright

Recent Advances in Palestinian Archaeology

Palestine was always a very poor country, but at the same time it was a land bridge between continents. As […]

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Vol. 5 / No. 1

By: Kathleen M. Kenyon

Biblical Jerusalem

Preface No one will question the statement that the center of Biblical archaeology is Jerusalem. Nearly a hundred years ago, […]

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photo of etching into wall

Vol. 5 / No. 1

By: James B. Pritchard

Civil Defense at Gibeon: "Gibeon was a great city...and all its men were mighty" - Joshua 10:2

Defense was the most important single consideration in the planning and building of a city in Biblical Palestine, a land […]

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photo of pottery

Vol. 5 / No. 1

By: Frances W. James

The Pottery of the Old Testament

From the moment when man is created of dust in the second chapter of Genesis to the moment, shortly before […]

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Photo of stamp

Vol. 5 / No. 1

By: Frances W. James

Lady Mary’s Monastery: An Early Christian church at Beth Shan excavated by a University Museum expedition.

That the Roman Empire enjoyed a long Indian summer in its distant province of Palestine is sometimes overlooked. Even before […]

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Vol. 5 / No. 1

By: E.A. Speiser

Mesopotamian Motifs in the Early Chapters of Genesis

Biblical history proper begins with the call to Abraham to leave his native country and set out for a destination […]

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Vol. 5 / No. 1

By: Kenneth D. Matthews, Jr.

A Greek Fragment of the St. Matthew Gospel

On January 11, 1897 the Messrs. Bernard P. Grenfell and A.S. Hunt set a contingent of seventy men and boys […]

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Photo of tablet

Vol. 5 / No. 1

By: Samuel Noah Kramer

The Biblical “Song of Songs” and the Sumerian Love Songs

The Biblical book commonly known as Solomon’s “Song of Songs” or “Canticles,” is like no other book in the Old […]

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picture of Froelich Rainey

Vol. 5 / No. 1

By: Froelich Rainey

The Museum Expands: Editorial

With this issue of Expedition we are pleased to announce the establishment of a new section on Biblical Archaeology in the […]

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Vol. 5 / No. 2

By: Alfred Kidder, II

A Unique Peruvian Weaver

The Museum has recently acquired a very unusual specimen. It is a pillow on which is seated an effigy of […]

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Vol. 5 / No. 2

Expedition News – Winter 1963

Three major problems occupied the attention of the Hasanlu staff during the past summer. These were: (1) the clarification of […]

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Vol. 5 / No. 2

By: T. Cuyler Young, Jr.

Dalma Painted Ware

The archaeologist leaves for the field with his mind full of the historical problems he will solve through further excavation. […]

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Vol. 5 / No. 2

By: Donald Freeman Brown

In Search of Sybaris: 1962

Down in the foot of Italy, or more accurately under the instep and facing the blue Ionian sea, lies the […]

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Photo of mask.

Vol. 5 / No. 2

By: William R. Coe and John J. McGinn

Tikal: The North Acropolis and An Early Tomb

What is it that motivates anticipation of a rich tomb as the trench is cut further and deeper back in […]

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Photo of diver working underwater

Vol. 5 / No. 2

By: Peter Throckmorton and John M. Bullitt

Underwater Surveys in Greece: 1962

During the winter of 1961-62, Admiral Th. Voutsaras, President of the Federation Hellenique…des Activities Subaquatiques, received reports of a group of […]

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Vol. 5 / No. 2

By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

A Babylonian Lion in Toronto

Glazed lions molded in relief on baked brick facades are relatively rare on the North American continent.One of the best […]

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Photo fo object

Vol. 5 / No. 2

By: Elisabeth H. West

Jade: Its Character and Occurrence

Jade, considered as the material used for prehistoric tools and objects of art, has numerous aspects of interest. The special […]

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Vol. 5 / No. 2

By: Peter Harrison

A Jade Pendant From Tikal

During the 1962 season at Tikal, field work included investigation of the West Plaza, a large ceremonial group immediately west […]

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Vol. 5 / No. 3

By: Margaret Plass

Above the Salt

The Mediaeval custom, among people of rank, of placing a large saltcellar, called a salt foot, near the middle of […]

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vessels

Vol. 5 / No. 3

By: G. Roger Edwards

Gordion: 1962

The account of the excavations at Gordion in 1962 takes up the thread of the narrative of this site’s recovery […]

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Vol. 5 / No. 3

By: Theresa Howard Carter

Reconnaissance in Cyrenaica

Late in August we assembled in the humid oil-bemused town of Benghazi, major city of Libya’s Cyrenaican province. The irrepressible […]

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Vol. 5 / No. 3

By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

Archaeological Scrap: Glimpses of History at Ziwiye

Letters are crossing a museum curator’s desk constantly from different and obscure parts of the globe telling of chance discoveries […]

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Photo of acopolis across water

Vol. 5 / No. 3

By: John H. Young

A Migrant City in the Peloponnesus

The excavations at Porto Cheli (ancient Halieis) are part of the Argolid Exploration Project of the University of Pennsylvania, under […]

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Vol. 5 / No. 3

By: Hattula Moholy-Nagy

The Field Laboratory at Tikal

Archaeologists spend much time and a good deal of money digging. They spend months in the field recovering and recording […]

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Vol. 5 / No. 3

By: David Crownover

Discoveries at Cyrene

“The parts of Libya about Cyrene,” as the King James version of the Acts of the Apostles styles it, at […]

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Vol. 5 / No. 4

By: Frances Eyman

An Unusual Winnebago War Club and An American Water Monster

In 1839, Caleb W. Pusey, scion of a prominent Philadelphia family, was in the Winnebago country of Wisconsin, taking part […]

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Vol. 5 / No. 4

By: Miguel Civil

Sumerian Harvest Time

Busy with important researches such as establishing a tight chronological frame for Mesopotamian history, clarifying the role of the various […]

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Photo of table-alter and men on the excavation team

Vol. 5 / No. 4

By: Ian Graham

Across the Peten to the Ruins of Machaquila

Any student of the Maya civilization will be aware of how incomplete a record there is of the ancient ceremonial […]

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Vol. 5 / No. 4

By: Kenneth D. Matthews, Jr.

Saffron and Swan’s Grease

Beauty may well be in the eye of the beholder but for thousands of years many persons have felt it […]

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Vol. 5 / No. 4

By: Ruben E. Reina

The Potter and The Farmer: The Fate of Two Innovators in a Maya Village

Chinautla is a small Maya town of approximately 1500 people, descendants of the Pokomam-speaking group which once occupied large portions […]

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drawings of bones.

Vol. 6 / No. 1

By: Aubrey S. Trik

The Splendid Tomb of Temple I At Tikal, Guatemala

“Pothunter,” grave-robber,” and “tomb-looter” are not respectable epithets in the vocabulary of archaeology. However, these similar activities are sometimes dignified […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 1

By: Linton Satterthwaite

Note on Hieroglyphs on Bone From the Tomb Below Temple I, Tikal

Hieroglyphs incised on bone artifacts from the spectacular Burial 116 below Temple I, Tikal, constitute a major increment to the […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 1

By: John D. Cooney

Assorted Errors In Art Collecting

In assembling the exhibition of Egyptian forgeries for The Brooklyn Museum to open in November 1963* as The Forger’s Progress it […]

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photo of helmet

Vol. 6 / No. 1

By: George Radan

Italic Helmets

She found him sweating as he turned there and there to his bellows busily, since he was working on twenty […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 1

By: Froelich Rainey, Rodney S. Young, Samuel Noah Kramer and William R. Coe

Expedition News – Fall 1963

South Asia The Museum’s Director, Dr. Rainey, and Professor W. Norman Brown, Chairman of the South Asia Regional Studies Department […]

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photo of helen

Vol. 6 / No. 1

By: Helen T. Webster

Tikal Graffiti

Visitors to Tikal, the great Maya religious site in the lowlands of Peten, Guatemala, are always intrigued by the many […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 2

By: William H. Davenport

Hawaiian Feudalism

When Captain James Cook, greatest of all Pacific explorers, accidentally discovered the Hawaiian Islands in 1778, he also discovered that […]

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A votive bird from Anatolia

Vol. 6 / No. 2

By: Machteld J. Mellink

A Votive Bird from Anatolia

A stone hawk looks quizzically at the visitors of the special exhibit of the Lipchitz Collection. The label calls him […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 2

By: James B. Pritchard

Reconnaissance in Jordan

“How do you go about finding a site for excavation?” is a question frequently put to an archaeologist. With the […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 2

By: C.J. Gadd

Leon Legrain, D.D., Sc.D.

For over thirty years Dr. Legrain served as Curator of the Babylonian Section in the University Museum, an officer as […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 2

By: Oscar W. Muscarella

Ancient Safety Pins: Their Function and Significance

One of the most interesting types of archaeological research is that concerned with tracing the history of a particular object […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 2

By: Louise Scott

Wandering Griffin

(On seeing an Italian jug in the University Museum) The Adriatic shore of Italy across the sea from the Illyrian […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 2

By: David Crownover

An Ashanti Soul-Washer Badge

“In the beginning God created Black as well as White Men…God having created these two sorts of Men offered two […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 3

By: A. Ghosh

Archaeology in India

Official archaeology in India is now over a century old: in December 1961 the Archaeological Survey of India, a Government […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 3

By: Samuel Noah Kramer

The Indus Civilization and Dilmun, the Sumerian Paradise Land

One of the most significant and impressive archaeological achievements of the twentieth century centers around the discovery of the ancient […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 3

By: Arthur C. Clarke

Ceylon and the Underwater Archaeologist

Ceylon, where I have lived since 1956, is almost a virgin territory for the underwater archaeologist. My partner, Mike Wilson, […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 3

By: Peter Throckmorton

The Great Basses Wreck

When I arrived in Ceylon, a great deal of preliminary research had been done by Arthur Clarke and Mike Wilson […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 3

By: W. Norman Brown

The Indian Games of Pachisi, Chaupar, and Chausar

The Museum of the University of Pennsylvania owns several “boards”–they are actually made of cloth–used for playing the games known […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 3

By: George F. Dales

The Mythical Massacre at Mohenjo-Daro

Nothing delights the archaeologist more than excavating the ruins from some ancient disaster–be it a flood, earthquake, invasion, or massacre. […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 3

By: F.A. Khan

Archaeology in Pakistan

Pakistan has been a cradle of civilizations through the ages. It possesses one of the oldest and most distinguished cultural […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 4

By: James B. Pritchard

Two Tombs and a Tunnel in the Jordan Valley: Discoveries at the Biblical Zarethan

The cutting of the first trench into any large antiquity site is bound to be significant, especially if the mound […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 4

By: William H. Davenport

Marshall Islands Cartography

Cartography is an invention that is seldom encountered among primitive, that is non-literate, peoples, for it seems to be a […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 4

By: Percy C. Madeira, Jr.

Men In Search of Man: The first seventy-five years of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania.

This book, recently published by the University of Pennsylvania Press, is the work of a man whose concern for the […]

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photo of all objects

Vol. 6 / No. 4

By: Stephan F. DeBorhegyi

The Enduring Villages of Western Mexico

At the time of the Spanish Conquest, A.D. 1520-1535, the great American civilizations were those of the Pueblo in the […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 4

By: Ina Vanstan

Rags and Tatters Among the Textiles of Peru

The making of reconstructions of various kinds constitutes a large part of any archaeologist’s work. The final aim of such […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 4

By: Frances Eyman

Lacrosse and the Cayuga Thunder Rite

Lacrosse, the great combative team sport among Indians of eastern North America, is today the national sport of canada and […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 4

By: J. Alden Mason

H. Newell Wardle, 1875-1964

With the death of Harriet Newell Wardle in the Taylor Hospital, Ridley Park, on May 20th, at the age of […]

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Vol. 6 / No. 4

By: Froelich Rainey

Al Bendiner

Probably you always remember your friends in odd circumstances. I like to remember Al Bendiner early on a Sunday morning, […]

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Photo of object

Vol. 7 / No. 1

By: Theresa Howard Carter

Early Assyrians in the Sinjar

The 1964 staff of this expedition consisted of Mrs. Carter of the University Museum and David Oates, Director of the […]

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Vol. 7 / No. 1

By: William H. Davenport

Sculpture from La Grande Terre

From April 10 to May 31, 1964 the University Museum presented an exhibition of sculpture and other objects from the […]

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Vol. 7 / No. 1

By: David Crownover

Some Frit from Northern Mesopotamia

Frit, the word derived from the Italian “fritta,” (fried), is a chemical compound made up of silicate of lime and […]

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Vol. 7 / No. 1

Current University Museum Research – Fall 1964

AFRICA – Igor Kopytoff recently returned from the Ivory Coast and is now planning ethnographic research in Nigeria. ALASKA – A search for ancient […]

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Photo of objects

Vol. 7 / No. 1

By: Robert Stuckenrath, Jr.

The Debert Site: Early Man in the Northeast

A few miles inland of the vast tidal flats of Novia Scotia’s Minas Basin lies a wasted field of red […]

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Vol. 7 / No. 1

By: Margaret Plass

The Fetish That Knew Too Much

A powerful fetish that also served as an oracle in the Kra or Tchien tribe of Liberia has recently been […]

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Vol. 7 / No. 1

By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

A Stranger From the East

The blank, staring eyes and elongated chin of this portrait have a dark, haunting quality about them which stays in […]

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Photo of submarine

Vol. 7 / No. 2

By: George F. Bass and Lloyd P. Wells

The Museum Assembles A Fleet: Two Views

By George F. Bass It was surely the most exciting day of my life. When I stepped from the limousine […]

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Vol. 7 / No. 2

By: Emlen Etting

Aghion Oros: An Artist's View of Mount Athos

The visit to the Aegean about which Mr. Etting writes was aboard the yacht Doudouna, chartered by Henry McIlhenny. Other guests were John […]

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Vol. 7 / No. 2

By: Elizabeth K. Ralph

The Electronic Detective and the Case of the Missing City

The expeditions in search of Sybaris, directed by Prof. F. Rainey (University Museum), have been conducted in collaboration with Dr. […]

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Museum Exterior

Vol. 7 / No. 2

Current University Museum Research – Winter 1965

ALASKA – In search for ancient archaeological sites in the Noatak Valley. Summer season. Continuing. Douglas Anderson in charge. ANDEAN […]

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Vol. 7 / No. 2

By: Linton Satterthwaite

Maya Practice Stone-Carving At Piedras Negras

The five numbered “Miscellaneous Sculptured Stones” illustrated here were gathered by Museum expeditions to Piedras Negras, Guatemala, in the ’30’s. […]

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Vol. 7 / No. 3

By: William A. Haviland

Prehistoric Settlement at Tikal, Guatemala

The ancient Maya ruins of Guatemala and Yucatan have held a fascination for layman and scholar alike every since the […]

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Vol. 7 / No. 3

By: Dennis E. Puleston

The Chultuns of Tikal

Modern archaeology in all parts of the world abounds with unsolved mysteries and riddles. The Classic Maya area of Central […]

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Vol. 7 / No. 3

By: S.R. Rao

Shipping and Maritime Trade of the Indus People

Until recently it was generally believed that the Indus civilization was land-locked and its limited trade route leading to Mesopotamia […]

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Vol. 7 / No. 3

By: Richard C. Bull

The Metamorphosis of One Collector

Collectors are, I am convinced, born and not made. Those who have the instinct will collect something, just as surely […]

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Vol. 7 / No. 3

Current University Museum Research – Spring 1965

ALASKA – A search for ancient archaeological sites in the Noatak Valley. Summer season. Continuing. Douglas Anderson in charge. ANDEAN STUDIES […]

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Museum Exterior

Vol. 7 / No. 3

Expedition News – Spring 1965

West Pakistan The South Asia Section of the University Museum and the Pakistan Department of Archaeology conducted the first season […]

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Vol. 7 / No. 3

By: Rodney S. Young

Early Mosaics at Gordion

Few excavators are inclined to utter cries of joy when they happen upon a mosaic floor. Mosaics cannot in good […]

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drawing

Vol. 7 / No. 4

By: Frances Eyman

American Indian Gaming Arrows and Stick-Dice

Games and gambling seem to be world-wide in their appeal. Only the most archaic of hunting cultures, those of the […]

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Vol. 7 / No. 4

By: George F. Dales

Civilization and Floods in the Indus Valley

In addition to Dr. Dales as Field Director, the official staff included the Museum’s architect Aubrey Trik and Stephen Rees-Jones […]

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Vol. 7 / No. 4

Current University Museum Research – Summer 1965

ALASKA – Carrying on the excavation of the Onion Portage site in the vicinity of Ambler, North Alaska, under the […]

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Vol. 7 / No. 4

By: Alfred Kidder, II

Two Stone Figures from the Andes: Question: What Part?

One of the most exasperating but at the same time challenging things that can happen to an archaeologist working in […]

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Photo of people over skeleton

Vol. 7 / No. 4

By: James B. Pritchard

A Cosmopolitan Culture of the Late Bronze Age

Surely them ost surprising and possibly the most significant result achieved from two seasons of digging at Tell es-Sa’idiyeh was […]

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Vol. 7 / No. 4

By: Frances W. James

A Milestone in Palestinian Archaeology

The University Museum takes pleasure in congratulating the Palestine Exploration Fund on its centenary and in recording its appreciation of […]

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Photo of young girl

Vol. 7 / No. 4

By: Kenneth M. Kensinger

The Cashinahua of Southeastern Peru

The Cashinahua, classified linguistically as Panoan, live along the Curanja River of southeastern Peru and along upper reaches of the […]

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Vol. 8 / No. 1

By: Alfred Kidder, II

Tikal: 1965

As we approach the final year of extensive archaeological work at Tikal it is quite obvious, as the reader of Dr. Coe’s […]

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Photo of temple

Vol. 8 / No. 1

By: William R. Coe

Tikal: Ten Years of Study of a Maya Ruin in the Lowlands of Guatemala

Introduction By the end of 1966 the fieldwork of the Tikal Project will have ended, though understandable with small sense […]

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Vol. 8 / No. 2

By: Kenneth D. Matthews, Jr.

Domitian: The Lost Divinity

Titus Flavius Domitianus–a handsome man, graceful of carriage, rather tall in stature, quick witted and intelligent though not well educated […]

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Vol. 8 / No. 2

Current University Museum Research – Winter 1966

ANDEAN STUDIES – Alfred Kidder is compiling the publication of his excavation at Chiripa in highland Bolivia. APPLIED SCIENCE CENTER […]

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Photo of objects

Vol. 8 / No. 2

By: Ernest S. Dodge

Following Captain Cook Around Europe

In the summer of 1957 I had the pleasure of visiting the anchorages of Captain James Cook in the Society […]

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Vol. 8 / No. 2

By: Ross Parmenter

Break-Through on The “Lienzo De Filadelfia”

Research problems, in a way, are like log jams. For a long time they seem to present an unbudgeable wall. […]

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Vol. 8 / No. 2

By: Samuel Noah Kramer

Ephraim Avigdor Speiser

On June 15, 1965, Ephraim Avigdor Speiser, creative scholar, inspiring teacher, gifted writer, died in his Elkins Park home in […]

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Vol. 8 / No. 2

By: Boutau K. Efot

The Tale of Pupily-Eyeballs-Thing: A Truk Ghost Story

Translator’s note: In 1964-65 I spent ten months with my wife and two sons on leave from the University of Pennsylvania […]

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Vol. 8 / No. 3

By: Froelich Rainey

Return to the Arctic

At the camp of Onion Portage on the Kobuk River, I was struck by the number of youngsters who played […]

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Vol. 8 / No. 3

By: Jane C. Goodale

Imlohe and The Mysteries of The Passismanua, Southwest New Britain

There was a man called Imlohe, the young man, Gospo, began his story. Imlohe made a very big garden–as big […]

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Vol. 8 / No. 3

By: Frances Eyman

A Grizzly Bear Carving From The Missouri Valley

Some of the most compelling art objects made by the North American Indian are small, and their effect is due […]

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Vol. 8 / No. 3

By: Patty Jo Watson

Clues to Iranian Prehistory in Modern Village Life

In 1956, while both graduate students in anthropology at the University of Chicago, Maxine R. Kleindienst and I wrote a […]

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Vol. 8 / No. 3

Expedition News – Spring 1966

On January 13, 1966, the Lucy Wharton Drexel Medal was awarded to Richard Stockton MacNeish. For the past five years, […]

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Vol. 8 / No. 4

By: George F. Bass

Troy and Ur: Gold Links Between Two Ancient Capitals

The early Bronze Age in much of the Aegean, Near East, and Eastern Europe might better be called the Early […]

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Vol. 8 / No. 4

By: Elisabeth W. Russell

The “Vanished American”

During the summer of 1966 there has been an exhibition at the University Museum of Cigar Store Indians–25 figures borrowed […]

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Vol. 8 / No. 4

Current University Museum Research – Summer 1966

AFGHANISTAN – Reconnaissance and sherd survey to determine site of future work. George F. Dales in charge. ALASKA – Archaeological […]

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Vol. 8 / No. 4

By: Giorgio Buchner

Pithekoussai: Oldest Greek Colony in the West

The Ischia project, sponsored by the University Museum in close collaboration with the Superintendency of Antiquities of Naples, was started […]

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Vol. 8 / No. 4

By: Stephan F. De Borhegyi

The Wind God’s Breastplate

Any student of mythology knows that the many gods in the various religious pantheons of the world, as represented in […]

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Vol. 9 / No. 1

By: Ann Chowning

Lakalai Revisited

Except for the few who have managed to work in areas virtually unaffected by Western civilization, ethnographers are all too […]

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Photo of man with cattle in lake

Vol. 9 / No. 1

By: Ruben E. Reina

A Peninsula That May Have Been An Island: Tayasal, Peten, Guatemala.

Since the beginning of this century archaeologists and scientists in related disciplines have looked for clues and facts relating to […]

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Print of person

Vol. 9 / No. 1

By: Merle Green

Classic Maya Rubbings

The predominantly monumental art of the ancient Maya civilization in Classic times, from the third to the tenth century A.D., […]

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Vol. 9 / No. 1

By: Vimala S. Begley

The Ganga-Yamuna Basin: In the First Millennium B.C.

Due to the persistent efforts of archaeologists in India one of the most exciting developments which is taking place in […]

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Vol. 9 / No. 2

By: Ellen L. Kohler

Ultimatum to Terracotta-Forgers

On the shelves of the classical study-storage a remarkably beautiful terracotta figurine has stood for many years. The figure is […]

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Vol. 9 / No. 2

By: George F. Guillemin

The Ancient Cakchiquel Capital of Iximché

Guatemala, when thought of archaeologically, usually recalls rainforests and the ruined temples and palaces of a Piedras Negras or a Tikal. For […]

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Vol. 9 / No. 2

By: Keith A. Dixon

The First Tikal-Inspired Fake: A Stone Sculpture from West Mexico

At Tikal, Guatemala, over the past ten years, the University Museum’s excavations have turned up some of the most spectacular […]

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Vol. 9 / No. 2

Current University Museum Research – Winter 1967

AFGHANISTAN – Final arrangements for a proposed archaeological project in Seistan next fall and winter, working on problems of contacts […]

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Vol. 9 / No. 2

By: Alfred Kidder, II

Percy Childs Madeira, Jr.: February 8, 1889 - January 29, 1967

Percy Childs Madeira was a member of the Board of Managers of the University Museum for thirty-six years and served […]

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Vol. 9 / No. 2

By: Kenneth M. Kensinger

Change and the Cashinahua

In the Summer, 1965 number of Expedition, we published a copy of the first letter written by a Cashinahua in his own […]

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Vol. 9 / No. 2

By: Francis E. Johnston, Richard L. Jantz and Geoffrey F. Walker

Physical Anthropology of the Cashinahua

As we have learned from the archaeological record, the American Indian is derived primarily from inhabitants of northeast Asia who […]

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Vol. 9 / No. 3

By: Dennis E. Puleston and Donald W. Callender, Jr.

Defensive Earthworks at Tikal

For the weeks, months, and even years one spends carrying out fairly routine work there is always the possibility of […]

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Vol. 9 / No. 3

Expedition News – Spring 1967

The Sillman Collection Over one-half of American children have maloccluded (“crowded”) teeth, to a greater or lesser degree. About ten […]

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Vol. 9 / No. 3

By: Oliver C. Colburn

A Habitation Area of Thurii

The expedition in search of Sybaris and the later colony Thurii, directed by Prof. Froelich Rainey of the University Museum, […]

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Vol. 9 / No. 3

By: Herbert L. Alexander

Alaskan Survey

An expedition into the wilderness north of the Brooks Range in Alaska, where the nearest people are four days’ walk […]

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Group of laughing men

Vol. 9 / No. 3

By: Carleton S. Coon

Yengema Cave

Like other non-professional soldiers during the second World War I made some close friends whom I saw little if ever […]

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Photo of pyramids

Vol. 9 / No. 3

By: Froelich Rainey

The Archaeology Explosion

A recent issue of Courier published by UNESCO, makes the point that archaeological monuments and museums spark tomorrow’s tourist explosion in […]

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Vol. 9 / No. 3

By: Machteld J. Mellink

Mary Hamilton Swindler: January 1, 1884 - January 16, 1967

Mary Hamilton Swindler, Consulting Fellow of the University Museum, died on January 16, 1967. Mary Swindler, through a long career […]

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Vol. 9 / No. 4

By: Alfred Kidder, II

A Mochica Potato Bird

Peru is famous for rich, natural resources, animal, vegetable and mineral, that about in its varied geographical zones from the […]

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Vol. 9 / No. 4

By: Froelich Rainey

Marie Lemoine Harrison

We of the University Museum staff are all too sharply reminded by the death of Mrs. Charles C. Harrison, Jr. […]

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occult drawing

Vol. 9 / No. 4

By: Allan Young

Varieties of Amhara Graphic Art

The Amhara are the politically dominant people of modern Ethiopia. Agriculturalists of the northern highlands, they are the descendants of […]

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Vol. 9 / No. 4

By: Samuel Noah Kramer

Reflections on the Mesopotamian Flood: The Cuneiform Data New and Old

Historiography, the writing of history, was hardly a favorite subject of the ancient Mesopotamian academicians and men of letters. Lacking […]

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photo of object

Vol. 9 / No. 4

By: Vimala S. Begley

Archaeological Exploration in Northern Ceylon

In 1926 Hocart wrote that “what is needed for Ceylon archaeology is a stratified site” (A.M. Hocart in Archaeological Survey of […]

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Photo of stamp seal

Vol. 9 / No. 4

By: George F. Dales

South Asia’s Earliest Writing: Still Undeciphered

The introduction of the art of writing is recognized as one of the most crucial advances in the history of […]

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Vol. 10 / No. 1

By: Judy Birmingham

Pottery Making in Andros

When in 1966, it seemed likely that an expedition from Sydney might one day undertake archaeological excavations in the Greek […]

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Vol. 10 / No. 1

Current University Museum Research -Fall 1967

AFGHANISTAN – Beginning excavations in the Seistan region during early months of 1968. George Dales in charge. AFRICA – Excavations […]

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Photo of statue head.

Vol. 10 / No. 1

By: David O'Connor

Abydos: A Preliminary Report of the Pennsylvania-Yale Expedition, 1967

In February, 1967, a combined expedition of the University Museum and Yale University commenced excavations at Abydos in Southern Egypt, […]

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Vol. 10 / No. 1

By: Ray Winfield Smith

The Akhenaten Temple Project

Since October 1966, an expedition of the University Museum has been engaged in a study of polychrome relief-cut blocks from […]

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Vol. 10 / No. 1

By: Brunilde Sismondo Ridgway

The Bronze Lady From the Sea

Visitors to the University Museum between October 16 and November 27, 1966, had the opportunity of admiring one of the […]

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Vol. 10 / No. 2

By: James B. Pritchard

An Eighth Century Traveller

One of the most intriguing artifacts discovered in four seasons of excavation at Tell es-Sa’idiyeh in Jordan is the small […]

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Vol. 10 / No. 2

By: Lanny Bell

The Work of the University Museum at Thebes

On the west bank of the Nile, across from the town of Luxor and the Great Temple of the god […]

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Vol. 10 / No. 2

By: John Witthoft

Flint Arrowpoints: From the Eskimo of Northwestern Alaska

Introduction Knowledge of the Stone Age grows by slow steps. Tools and techniques of ancient men are unfamiliar to us, and we […]

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Vol. 10 / No. 2

By: William H. Davenport

Sculpture of the Eastern Solomons

With the special exhibition from the Eastern Solomon Islands (December 8 – May 31) the University Museum presents a new […]

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Vol. 10 / No. 2

By: Alfred Kidder, II and Linton Satterthwaite

J. Alden Mason: January 14, 1885—November 7, 1967

The death of J. Alden Mason brought sadness to all of his colleagues at the University Museum and to many […]

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Vol. 10 / No. 3

By: George F. Bass

The Turkish Aegean: Proving Ground for Underwater Archaeology

In the spring of 1960, seven men and women arrived in Turkey to excavate a Bronze Age shipwreck ninety-five feet […]

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Vol. 10 / No. 3

By: John M. Dimick

Aubrey S. Trik: June 30, 1910—March 11, 1968

The Museum has experienced a grievous loss by the death of Aubrey Trik, leading member of the Technical Staff and […]

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Vol. 10 / No. 3

By: Michael L. Katzev and Susan Womer Katzev

The Search Below

The 1967 survey expedition was made possible through the generous sponsorship of the University Museum; the Cyprus Mines Corporation of […]

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Vol. 10 / No. 3

By: Francis E. Johnston

Anthropological Aspects of Human Physical Growth

As the physical anthropologist seeks to understand the meaning of the striking range of variability which confronts him he is […]

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Vol. 10 / No. 3

By: Nicholas David

Archaeological Reconnaissance in Cameroon

In spite of its central location at the hinge of Africa, between the Congo basin and the West, the desert […]

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Vol. 10 / No. 3

By: Maude de Schauensee

Portable Architecture

What is a Bedouin tent but an eminently practical, completely portable house demonstrating all the principal elements of permanent architecture. […]

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Vol. 10 / No. 4

By: Christopher L. Hamlin

A Proto-Elamite Account Tablet from Susa

Among the objects recently acquired by the Museum in its exchange with the Musee du Louvre is the Proto-Elamite account […]

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Drawing of excavators

Vol. 10 / No. 4

By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

Early Works on the Acropolis at Susa: The Beginning of Prehistory in Iraq and Iran

In 1859 Rawlinson wrote in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society: “It would be particularly interesting to excavate the great […]

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Vol. 10 / No. 4

By: Robert Netting

Kofyar Building in Mud and Stone

The Kofyar are a tough, hard working, notably independent people living in Northern Nigeria. They are hill men whose individualism […]

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Vol. 10 / No. 4

By: Alfred Kidder, II

Two Peruvian Frogs

On a recent expedition to my optician’s on Chestnut Street I spotted an interesting Peruvian pottery frog effigy (now Museum […]

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Vol. 10 / No. 4

By: Leslie R. Langton

The Restoration of a Bronze Plaque From Benin

In April 1967 the University Museum of Philadelphia sent me fragments of a Benin Bronze plaque (AF 2069) with a […]

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Vol. 10 / No. 4

Expedition News – Summer 1968

The Kevorkian Lectures The Hagop Kevorkian Visiting Lectureship in Iranian Art and Archaeology was established by the Trustees of the […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 1

By: Carleton S. Coon

Excavations at Yengema Cave: Sierra Leone

During November, 1965, Mrs. Coon and I excavated a cave at Yengema, Kono District, Southeastern Province, Sierra Leone. We were […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 1

By: George F. Dales

The South Asia Section

The South Asia Section can attribute its genesis in large part to a belief in the traditions of the ancient […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 1

By: Herbert L. Alexander

Alaska: Archaeology in the Atigun Valley

In 1966 the University Museum and the Society of the Sigma Xi supported a three-week survey of the Atigun Valley […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 1

By: William H. Davenport

Anthropology in the British Solomon Islands

Since 1964 field research in the British Solomon Islands has been primarily concerned with ethnographic studies. Last winter’s special exhibition […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 1

By: David O'Connor

Field Work in Egypt

The University Museum has at present three field expeditions active in Egypt, continuing a tradition of Egyptological research begun by […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 1

By: Rodney S. Young

Operation Gordion

After nearly twenty years of activity at Gordion it is perhaps well to look back, to recall the reasons for […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 1

By: Froelich Rainey

Editorial

All of us who are interested in the story of the world’s many different civilizations must wonder at the ferment […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 1

By: James B. Pritchard

The Palace of Tell es-Sa’idiyeh

Since we began to excavate at Tell es-Sa’idiyeh in 1964 not a season has gone by without our gaining some […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 1

By: George F. Bass and Laurence T. Joline

Problems of Deep Wreck Identification

Readers of recent numbers of Expedition and the National Geographic are aware already of the University Museum’s search for two specific shipwrecks off […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 1

By: Ward H. Goodenough

Arts and Crafts in Truk

My first field work in the Pacific Islands was for seven months in the great complex atoll of Truk in […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 1

By: Alfred Kidder, II

The Conservation Program at Tikal

In 1956, when the Museum undertook the tremendous task of making a thorough archaeological study of the ruins of Tikal, […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 1

By: Ruben E. Reina

Sixteenth Century Guatemala: Archivos de Indias, Seville

After several decades of archaeological and ethnographic field work in the Maya area, the need to study, from an ethnographic […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 2

By: Michael L. Katzev

The Kyrenia Shipwreck

The University Museum’s excavation of the Kyrenia shipwreck in 1968 was carried out with the kind permission of the Depart­ment […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 2

By: Sarah Dublin

A Greek Acropolis and Its Goddess

At the southern tip of the Argolid peninsula a sheltered harbor is joined to the Argolic Gulf by a narrow […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 2

By: Froelich Rainey

The Search For Sybaris

In the 8th century B.C. the Greek people began a colonial expansion not unlike that of the British people more […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 2

By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

A Decade in Iran

The establishment of a basic chronology consisting of broadly defined cultural phases from the earliest village settlements to the begin­ning […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 2

By: Bernard Wailes

Excavations at Dun Ailinne: County Kildare Republic of Ireland 1968

In June 1967 I was invited to the Republic of Ireland by Mr. John Cohane, of County Limerick, to visit […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 2

By: Kenneth M. Kensinger and Francis E. Johnston

The Cashinahua and the Study of Evolution

Cooperative research by physical and cultural anthropologists among small, isolated populations such as the Peruvian Cashinahua, who are still largely […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 2

By: Elizabeth K. Ralph

Archaeological Prospecting

As all readers of Expedition know, the basic technique of archaeology is excavation. But, as labor costs become higher all over […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 2

By: John Witthoft and Frances Eyman

The Wyoming Expedition of 1968

The Shoshone, like many other nomadic peoples of the Plains and the Rockies, are scarcely known to archaeology. Their ways […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 2

By: G. Roger Edwards

Torre Mordillo: 1967

Excavations at Torre Mordillo in Calabria in Southern Italy were undertaken during Sep­tember and October, 1967, as a joint operation […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 2

By: Robert J. Sharer

Chalchuapa: Investigations at a Highland Maya Ceremonial Center

The archaeological ruins of Chalchuapa lie within a broad, fertile valley in the western por­tion of seldom-visited El Salvador, the […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 2

By: Karen L. Mohr-Chavez

Excavations in the Cuzco-Puno Area of Southern Highland Peru

Cuzco, once capital of the grand and ex­tensive Inca empire before the Spanish conquest in 1532, and now justly titled […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 2

By: Bruce Lutz

Archaeological Investigations Near Unalakleet, Alaska

Preliminary excavations were begun near the village of Unalakleet on the coast of Norton Sound this past summer. Several of […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 3

By: Kenneth D. Matthews

A Boy’s First Shave

Although it is suggested that this marble bust from the University Museum’s collections was found on Cyprus, the pleasant-looking young […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 3

By: Olga Linares De Sapir

Diola Pottery of the Fogny and the Kasa

Separated from the modern capital of Dakar by rivers and difficult roads, the Diola of the Casamance in southern Senegal, […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 3

By: Frances Eyman and John Witthoft

Metallurgy of the Tlingit, Dene, and Eskimo

Tlingit ethnographic collections include large numbers of copper objects in many types, most of them made from the commercial copper […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 3

By: Lanny Bell

Return to Dra Abu el-Naga

In the winter of 1968 the staff of the Dra Abu el-Naga Project once more assembled in Egypt, for another […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 3

By: Geoffrey Pearce

The Conservation of Wall Paintings in Tomb 35 at Dra Abu el-Naga

A preliminary examination of the walls and ceiling of Tomb 35 revealed that although its remaining plastered sections have suffered […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 4

By: Froelich Rainey

In Search of Egi Zuma

At the airport in Tripoli I met the three husky young Italians who were to accompany us into the desolate […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 4

By: William H. Davenport

Tahiti and the South Sea Legend

For two centuries popular impressions of Ta­hiti have been a blend of geographic fact and eth­nic fancy concocted to feed […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 4

By: Bengt Danielsson

The Exotic Sources of Gauguin’s Art

Non, mille fois non, l’artiste ne nalt pas tout d’une piece. Qu’il apporte un nouveau maillon a la chaine commencee, […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 4

By: Richard S. Field

Gauguin’s Woodcuts

Like many artists before and after him, Paul Gauguin used the medium of the print to re­capitulate and initiate ideas […]

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Vol. 11 / No. 4

By: Kenneth D. Matthews

Scutella, Patella, Paterna, Patina: A Study of Roman Dinnerware

Arranging an old-fashioned Roman orgy is not easy. Aside from certain perhaps awk­ward moral considerations there are other com­plications worth […]

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Vol. 12 / No. 1

By: Philip P. Betancourt

The Age of Homer: An Exhibition of Geometric and Orientalizing Greek Art

The Greek Bronze Age ended in violent disarray. Most of the Mycenaean fortresses were burned or abandoned within the space […]

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Vol. 12 / No. 1

By: George F. Dales and Louis Flam

On Tracking Woolly Kullis and the Like

Archaeology is a many-faced deity. It (she?) can smile benevolently upon you and order gold and fame to be rained […]

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Vol. 12 / No. 1

By: Gayle Wever

A Persian Puzzle: A Bronze Sword from Teheran

The ability to recognize modem alterations and outright forgeries is important to all students of archaeology. Consequently, in its training […]

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Vol. 12 / No. 1

By: David O'Connor

Abydos and the University Museum: 1898-1969

After its formation in 1887 the University Museum rapidly developed its role in the ex­ploration of extinct and living cultures […]

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Vol. 12 / No. 2

By: Pamela Hemphill

An Archaeological Survey of Southern Etruria

Southern Etruria lies in the volcanic hills north and west of the Tiber. This region was occu­pied by the Bronze […]

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Vol. 12 / No. 2

By: Froelich Rainey

Tikal: A Fourteen Year Program Now Completed

Writing for the Museum Bulletin in Decem­ber 1956 about our hopes and plans for the clear­ing, excavation, and consolidation of […]

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Vol. 12 / No. 2

By: Alan McPherron and Elizabeth K. Ralph

Magnetometer Location of Neolithic Houses in Yugoslavia

The first cesium magnetometer survey of prehistoric sites in Yugoslavia was carried out by Elizabeth K. Ralph in June 1969, […]

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Vol. 12 / No. 2

By: Ruben E. Reina, Annette B. Weiner and Edward O'Flaherty, S.J.

Ethnohistory and Archaeology in Colonial Antigua, Guatemala

The visitor to modern Antigua, Guatemala, receives the impression that he is stepping back into the Colonial period. The ruins […]

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Vol. 12 / No. 3

By: Kenneth D. Matthews

The Imperial Wardrobe of Ancient Rome

To protect his Danubian provinces, the Em­peror Marcus Aurelius personally led campaigns against the Marcomanni from A.D. 166 to 172 […]

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Vol. 12 / No. 3

By: David Crownover

Alfred Bendiner and Iraq

Architect and artist, “Al” Bendiner, as a full gen­eration of The University Museum called him, served at various times on […]

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Vol. 12 / No. 3

By: Erle Leichty

A Remarkable Forger

A few years ago Professor Aaboe of Yale University and Professor Sachs of Brown Univer­sity dedicated an article to a most […]

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Vol. 12 / No. 3

By: Theresa Howard Carter

The Stone Spirits

Early in the 1964 season of excavations at Tell al-Rimah one of our Bedouin excavators, a colorful Shammar tribesman, brought […]

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Vol. 12 / No. 3

By: Emma C. Bunker and Joseph Ternbach

A Variation of the ‘Lost Wax’ Process

Ever since Noel Barnard proved that the ancient Chinese bronze vessels of the Shang and Chou periods could only have […]

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Vol. 12 / No. 4

By: David O'Connor

Jaroslav Cerny: 1898-1970

Among the many scholars who have served the Museum and the University through the years, Jaroslav Cerny was one of […]

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Vol. 12 / No. 4

By: Michael L. Katzev

Kyrenia: 1969

The University Museum undertook the sec­ond campaign of excavation on the Kyrenia shipwreck with the very kind permission of the […]

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Vol. 12 / No. 4

By: Ray Anita Slater

Dendereh and the University Museum: 1898-1970

The recent publication of Henry G. Fischer‘s book on Dendereh, more than seventy years after the first excavations at that […]

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Vol. 12 / No. 4

By: Thomas C. Greaves

The Texture of Disaster

The world for some 70,000 Peruvians ended on Sunday afternoon, last May 31st, and to something over a million more, […]

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Vol. 12 / No. 4

By: Sergio J. Chavez and Karen L. Mohr Chavez

Newly Discovered Monoliths From the Highlands of Puno, Peru

The archaeologist must deal with many kinds of evidence from the past, including such obstinate creatures as mute monoliths, those […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 1

By: Kenneth D. Matthews

Roman Aqueducts: Technical Aspects of their Construction

The aqueducts of ancient Roman times represent the efforts of government to provide city dwellers with an abundant supply of […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 1

By: Jeffrey Zelitch

The Lakota Sun Dance

Wiwanyag Wacipi, the Gazing-at-the-Sun Dance is now the only public ceremony of the Lakota (Teton-Sioux) religion. It is, however, not […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 1

By: David I. Owen

Picking up the Pieces: The Salvage Excavation of a Looted Fifth Century B.C. Shipwreck in the Straits of Messina

The University Museum underwater excavations in the Straits of Messina were undertaken with a grant from the Geograph­ical Society of […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 1

By: Elizabeth Lyons

Figurines From Chansen

In 1968 and 1969 the University Museum team of George Dales, Bennett Bronson, and El­kins Weatherill in conjunction with members […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 1

By: Peter Throckmorton

More Lost Ships

This article was written before the Throck­mortons returned to Greece last spring. We have just received a note from Mr. […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 2

By: Ljubica D. Popovich

An Ethiopian Holy Land

Elevated heavenward by the central moun­tain massif of Ethiopia, forever tied to the earth with the vein of rock out […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 2

By: Margaret Plass

The Dance of Sigi

The old chief, seventy-five years old by the calendar of the Europeans, two Sigis and ten years by the calendar […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 2

By: Erle Lichty

Demons and Population Control

One of the major problems in the study of dead civilizations is the lack of native informants. Without such informants […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 2

By: Olga Linares De Sapir

Cerro Brujo: A Tiny Guaymi Hamlet of the Past

The provinces of Bocas del Toro and Chi­riqui in western Panama are the homeland today of 35,000 Guaymi Indians who […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 2

Expedition Photographic Contest

Open to all staff, graduate students, and members of the University Museum. Archaeology, anthropology, and photogra­phy go hand in hand; […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 3-4

By: Aslan Afshar

Letter from His Excellency, Aslan Afshar, Ambassador of Iran: Letter from His Excellency, Aslan Afshar, Ambassador of Iran

July 27, 1971 The Celebration of the 2500th Anniversary of the Founding of the Persian Empire by Cyrus the Great […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 3-4

Iran — Maps and Chronology: Sites in the Parthian and Sassanian Empires

NEOLITHIC ca. 9000 B.C. Hunters and Gatherers of Seal and Red Deer. Belt and Hotu Caves         […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 3-4

By: T. Cuyler Young, Jr.

The Search for Understanding: Excavating the Second Millennium

Iran is a large country with a rich historic and prehistoric past. Archaeologists are making a beginning at understanding that […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 3-4

By: Edith Porada

Aspects of Elamite Art and Archaeology

In Sumerian texts we read about the coun­try NIM, the wondrous mountain area which we call Iran today. The biblical […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 3-4

By: Louis D. Levine

The Iron Age Revealed

The growth of archaeological research in Iran in the last quarter century has been one of the most exciting developments […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 3-4

By: Oscar W. Muscarella

Qalatgah: An Urartian Site in Northwestern Iran

Modern archaeological interest in Urartu and its culture has several phases. The first, which lasted until around 1945, started in […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 3-4

By: Carl Nylander

The Achaemenid Empire

In spite of a long and creative past it is only with the advent of the dynasty named Achaemenid after […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 3-4

By: Edward Keall

Partho-Sassanian Archaeology: A New Phase

To speak of a discipline of Partho-Sassanian archaeology is really to use a misnomer from the very start. There is […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 3-4

By: Charles K. Wilkinson

Islamic Archaeology in Iran

Islamic archaeology did not fully develop in Iran until after 1930 when the French monopoly of excavation in that country […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 3-4

By: Brian I. Spooner

Cultural Anthropology in Iran: Beginnings and Prospects

Ethnographic interest in Iran has a long his­tory. It goes back to the first European travelers in the Middle Ages […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 3-4

The University Museum Excavations in Iran

1931–1932 Tepe Hissar (Damghan), Director Erich F. Schmidt; with the Philadelphia Museum of Art and the American Institute for Persian […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 3-4

By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

Iran: Eleven Thousand Years of Cultural History

In October of this year, world attention will be directed toward the achievements of Iran’s ancient civilization through the celebration […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 3-4

By: Philip E.L. Smith

Iran, 9000-4000 B.C.: The Neolithic

The five millennia between approximately 9000 B.C. and 4000 B.C. were vital ones in the history of the Middle East […]

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Vol. 13 / No. 3-4

By: C.C. Lamberg-Karlovsky and Philip L. Kohl

The Early Bronze Age of Iran as Seen from Tepe Yahya

The last centuries before 3000 B.C. were of capital importance in Iran and Mesopotamia—for in both there arose contemporary and […]

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Vol. 14 / No. 1

By: David O'Connor

Ancient Egypt and Black Africa: Early Contacts

In 1955 a west African scholar, Marcel Diop, argued vehemently that professional Egyptolo­gists had been concealing a startling fact for […]

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Vol. 14 / No. 1

By: Thomas C. Greaves

Is There a Culture of Poverty?

What, if anything, culture has to do with poverty is one of the great issues of contem­porary cultural anthropology. This […]

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Vol. 14 / No. 1

By: James B. Pritchard

The Phoenicians in Their Homeland

The Phoenician expansion westward for three thousand miles across the Mediterranean and beyond to the shores of the Atlantic was […]

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Vol. 14 / No. 1

By: Payson D. Sheets

An Ancient Natural Disaster

Recent geological and archaeological investigations in Chalchuapa, El Salvador, together have provided the probable answer to a question which has […]

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Vol. 14 / No. 1

By: Alfred Friendly

A Doomed Aqueduct

A unique and fascinating portion of one of the finest aqueducts of the Roman world will be lost in the […]

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Vol. 14 / No. 2

By: Ekpo O. Eyo

New Treasures From Nigeria

Recent excavations in western Nigeria conducted by the Department of Antiquities of the Government of Nigeria indicate that the town […]

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Vol. 14 / No. 2

By: Vaughn E. Crawford

Excavations in the Swamps of Sumer

My first visit to Al-Hiba was in November, 1953, when 1 was a member of an archaeological survey led by […]

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Vol. 14 / No. 2

By: B.K. Thapar

The Buried Past of Dehli

According to popular belief there have been eight imperial cities of Delhi of which New Delhi, or Raisina as it […]

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Vol. 14 / No. 2

By: Karen Goodrich-Hedrick and John D. Hedrick

Cruise of the United States Frigate Potomac

Sir Mortimer Wheeler’s dictum, “Dead archaeology is the driest dust that blows” is too often realized in ethnological specimens relegated […]

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Vol. 14 / No. 2

By: Jeffrey Klein

A Greek Metalworking Quarter: Eighth Century Excavations on Ischia

Ancient notices of the Greek colony of Pithekoussai, the present island of Ischia in the Bay of Naples, are surprisingly […]

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Vol. 14 / No. 3

By: Elizabeth Kennedy Easby

Seafarers and Sculptors of the Caribbean

The original discoverers of the islands we all the Antilles or West Indies came at least 4000 years before Columbus […]

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Vol. 14 / No. 3

By: Ward H. Goodenough

Social Implications of Population Control

The cost of modern technology and of a high material standard of living confronts us with increasing insistence. Jean Mayer […]

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Vol. 14 / No. 3

By: Virginia Wayland

The Indian Looks at the White Man: Playing-card Portraits of the Old West

Anglo artists such as Frederick Remington and George Catlin and writers such as John Gregory Bourke and Josiah Gregg have […]

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Vol. 14 / No. 3

By: Wilhelm G. Solheim, II

Early Man in Southeast Asia

New discoveries by the Thailand Fine Arts Department-University of Hawaii Archaeology Program in Northern Thailand are well on the way […]

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Vol. 14 / No. 3

By: Roger Keesing

The Anthropologist’s Dilemma: Empathy and Analysis Among the Solomon Islanders

Just over a century ago white men in sailing ships began to carry off young Solomon Islanders from the coasts […]

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Vol. 14 / No. 4

By: S.A. Goudsmit

Not For the Art Trade

“What you dig up out of the ground is no good for the art trade.” This was the doctrine of […]

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Vol. 14 / No. 4

By: A. Gutkind Bulling

Archaeological Excavation in China: 1949-1966

Much too little is known in this country about archaeological work and excavations carried out in China since the People’s […]

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Vol. 14 / No. 4

By: Margaret L. Arrott

A Unique Method of Making Pottery: Santa Apolonia, Guatemala

From long before dawn on Thursday morn­ings the narrow dirt road leading from San Jose Poaquil through Santa Apolonia to […]

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Vol. 14 / No. 4

By: Valerio Cianfarani

The Necropolis of Campovalano: Mysteries of Middle Adriatic Culture

Recent excavations at Campovalano, in the Abruzzi region of Italy, have reaffirmed the exist­ence of a little-known culture which flowered […]

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Vol. 14 / No. 4

By: John D. Hedrick and Karen Goodrich-Hedrick

The Problem of Polynesian Origin

Who are the Polynesians? From whom did they derive? How were they able to reach the far-flung islands of the […]

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Vol. 15 / No. 1

By: Loren Eiseley

Flight 857

Loren Eiseley, the well-known author, is Curator of Early Man at the Uni­versity Museum. This poem “Flight 857” is reprinted […]

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Vol. 15 / No. 1

By: Ann Chowning

Ceremonies, Shell Money and Culture Among the Kove

The Kove (or Kombe) have the reputation of being the most difficult people in the large island of New Britain, […]

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Vol. 15 / No. 1

By: Alfred Friendly and Eleni Karapanayiotis

Nemesis

A remarkable piece of archaeological detec­tive work—in effect the solving of a three-dimen­sional jigsaw puzzle—has “recovered” one of the few […]

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Vol. 15 / No. 1

By: Solomon H. Katz

Change…On “Top Of the World”

Introduction The Arctic ranks with the highest mountains and the broadest deserts as one of the most severe environments occupied […]

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Vol. 15 / No. 1

By: A. Gutkind Bulling

China: Archaeological Excavations, 1966-1971

When in the spring of 1966 the People’s Re­public of China stopped the publication of all archaeological journals all of […]

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Vol. 15 / No. 2

By: Ronald Hicks

Stone and Other Henges

Stonehenge! The name conjures up visions of Druid priests assembling on Salisbury Plain to await sunrise on Midsummer’s Day. But […]

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Vol. 15 / No. 2

By: Brian I. Spooner

Afghan Carpets

Weavers and Dealers In the history of international trade. Oriental carpets are something of an anomaly. Although other exotic crafts […]

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Vol. 15 / No. 2

By: Lanny Bell

In the Tombs of the High Priests of Amun

Dira Abu el-Naga, located in the Theban Necropolis at Qurna, across the Nile from Luxor, was the burial place of […]

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Vol. 15 / No. 2

By: Michael M. Eisman

How a Greek Artist Once Painted Himself Into a Corner

I have been working on a study of the Attic kyathos, examining most of the extant examples of this small […]

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Vol. 15 / No. 2

By: Julian Whittlesey

Balloons, ‘Flying Mattresses,’ and Photography

Aerial photography has rapidly become one of the major weapons in the arsenal of the archaeologist. Man has left marks […]

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Vol. 15 / No. 3

By: David Crownover

Gold Beads From the Gold Coast

Hutchinson, in his diary, part of Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee, published by Thomas Bowdich in 1819, paints […]

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Vol. 15 / No. 3

By: Sheila McNally

Digging in Diocletian’s Palace

Since 1968 a team from the Town Planning Institute of Dalmatia and the University of Minne­sota has been excavating in […]

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Vol. 15 / No. 3

By: Charles F. Bridgman

The Radiography of Museum Objects

The radiography of museum objects is not a new application of the scientific use of x-rays. In fact, in 1896, […]

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Vol. 15 / No. 3

By: Alfred Friendly

Recent Excavations in Jerusalem

Four years of intensive work by Israeli archaeologists in the Old City of Jerusalem—where professional expertise has been inspired by […]

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Vol. 15 / No. 4

By: Robert Reinhold

Theft and Vandalism: An Archaeological Disaster

Archaeologists may have done their work just a little too well. They have sung the praises of ancient man so […]

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Vol. 15 / No. 4

By: Hara S. Georgiou

Minoan ‘Fireboxes’ From Gournia

The year 1900 favorably marked the official birth of Minoan Archaeology. A new field in ancient history, art and culture […]

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Vol. 15 / No. 4

By: Marjorie Vandervelde

Moon-children of San Blas Islands

Travelers who visit the San Blas Islands, just off the Atlantic coast of Panama, are surprised at the high incidence […]

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Vol. 15 / No. 4

By: Sabine Hargous-Vogel

Urban Problems, Peruvian Style

In Latin America there never has been a real, total cultural fusion such as occurred in Europe where the Mediterranean […]

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Vol. 15 / No. 4

By: Keith DeVries

East Meets West At Dinner

The excavations and study by the late Erich F. Schmidt at Persepolis and by Machteld J. Mellink at Elmali in […]

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Vol. 16 / No. 1

By: E.V. Wright

The Bronze Age Boats of North Ferriby, Yorkshire

Not many of us are lucky enough to be able to conduct “expeditions” from our own doorstep—although I have a […]

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Vol. 16 / No. 1

By: McGuire Gibson

Nippur 1972-1973

Southern Iraq, ancient Sumer and Akkad, is a land of contrasts. Rapid modernization has brought tractors, new crops, and indus­trial […]

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Vol. 16 / No. 1

By: Maurizio Tosi and Marcello Piperno

Lithic Technology Behind the Ancient Lapis Lazuli Trade

In his concise essay on the Urban Revo­lution, V. Gordon Childe listed the ten basic attributes of any complex, quantitatively […]

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Vol. 16 / No. 1

By: Alfred Friendly

Modern Science and Ancient Egypt

Two of the most interesting archae­ological ventures now being conducted in Egypt illustrate at its most dramatic the application of […]

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Vol. 16 / No. 1

By: Theodore C. Grame

Sounding Statues: The Symbolism of Musical Instruments

What did he doe with her brest-bone? He made him a violl to play thereupon. What did he doe with […]

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Vol. 16 / No. 2

By: James D. Muhly

The Hittites and the Aegean World

The first thing to realize about the Hittites is that they are not Hittites. The sad fact is that we […]

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Vol. 16 / No. 2

By: Denise Schmandt-Besserat

The Use of Clay Before Pottery in the Zagros

Clay is found abundantly in nature: its remarkable qualities of plasticity when wet and hardness when dry; its imperviousness to […]

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Vol. 16 / No. 2

By: Maria Voyatzoglou

The Jar Makers of Thrapsano in Crete

The Vendema Thrapsano is a village of about 1500 in­habitants in the province of Pediada, 30 kilo­meters from Herakleion. It […]

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Vol. 16 / No. 2

By: Oscar W. Muscarella

The Third Lion Bowl From Hasanlu

At present there are a few hundred of the popular and well-known group of objects called lion bowls, hand bowls, […]

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Vol. 16 / No. 2

By: Robert S. O. Harding

The Predatory Baboon

Between September 1970 and October 1971, I made a field study of a troop of free-ranging olive baboons near the […]

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Vol. 16 / No. 3

By: Frances W. James

Stone Knobs and Chariot Tracks

Among the Late Bronze materials from the University Museum’s excavation of biblical Beth Shan, 12 miles south of Lake Galilee, […]

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Vol. 16 / No. 3

By: Rodney S. Young

Phrygian Furniture From Gordion

Near the beginning of his history Hero­dotus tells us that “Midas son of Gordios, king of Phrygia was the first […]

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Vol. 16 / No. 3

By: John McDaniel

Professional Healthcare in a Montana Settlement of Peru

The settlement of Concepcion is recently founded, small (a total population of 212), and isolated. Located southeast of the town […]

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Vol. 16 / No. 3

By: Bernard Wailes

Irish Archaeology

The invitation to write an Expedition article on i was attractive, but reflection showed this to be an intractable task, due […]

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Vol. 16 / No. 4

By: William J. Robson

Peoples Who Perish

Because of ecological and environmental concerns, much attention has been given in the past few years to the erosion of […]

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Vol. 16 / No. 4

By: Marjorie Vandervelde

Meet the Chocos

From a small plane we looked down on tangled jungles of Darien Province, Panama. It was a green, undulating carpet […]

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Vol. 16 / No. 4

By: George Milton and Roberto Gonzalo

Jaguar Cult — Down’s Syndrome — Were-Jaguar

The region of the Gulf Coast of Mexico covering parts of the states of Veracruz and Tabasco was known to […]

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Vol. 16 / No. 4

By: H. Bartlett Wells

The Position of the Large Bronze Saws of Minoan Crete in the History of Tool Making

The production of reliable spring-temper steel in early times was a difficult and deli­cate process, so often attended with failure […]

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Vol. 16 / No. 4

By: McGuire Gibson

The Twelfth Season at Nippur

About the time a report on the eleventh season of the Oriental Institute’s expedition to Nippur was appearing in Expedition […]

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Vol. 17 / No. 1

By: Mildred A. Konan

Calabashes in Northern Nigeria

Several women huddled together in the shade of old trees in a small open market. They sat on the sandy […]

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Vol. 17 / No. 1

By: Jean Silverman

A Lost Notebook From the Excavations at Gournia, Crete

In the spring of 1973 a small notebook, titled “Inventory of Gournia Finds. Gournia, by class,” was presented to the […]

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Vol. 17 / No. 1

By: Michael Zimmerman

New Approaches to the Study of Ancient Disease

The elderly Eskimo woman moved aside the notched stones which held down the skin cover on the sod roof and […]

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Vol. 17 / No. 1

By: Leland Meister

Yemen: Breaking With the Feudal Past

Two aspects of the agricultural system in Yemen warrant description: the technology of the farmers and the relationship existing between […]

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Vol. 17 / No. 1

By: Musa Baran

Children’s Games

Child’s play—it is not as simple as we think. Men and even animals begin their lives in play. Grandfathers pass […]

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Vol. 17 / No. 2

By: H.D. Sankalia, Z.D. Ansari and M.K. Dhavalikar

An Early Farmer’s Village in Central India

The first prehistoric farming communities excavated in central India were found at the sites of Nasik, Jorwe and Nevasa (Sankalia […]

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Vol. 17 / No. 2

By: Ahman Hasad Dani

Origins of Bronze Age Cultures in the Indus Basin: A Geographic Perspective

PAST CONCEPTS We have been studying the problems of the Bronze Age Cultures in the Indus Basin for almost half […]

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Vol. 17 / No. 2

By: B.K. Thapar

Kalibangan: A Harappan Metropolis Beyond the Indus Valley

Kalibangan, literally black bangles, from the sight of the countless fragments of weather-stained terracotta bangles strewn over the surface of […]

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Vol. 17 / No. 2

By: Gregory L. Possehl

The Chronology of Gabarbands and Palas of Western South Asia

By far the greater parts of Pakistan and western India are semi-arid climatic zones. Mean annual precipitation for virtually all […]

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Vol. 17 / No. 3

By: John D. Hedrick and Karen Goodrich Hedrick

An Expedition to the New Hebrides

Melanesia—literally the black islands—stretches from New Guinea more than 4,000 kilometers southeastwards to Fiji. Some of the smaller islands in […]

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Vol. 17 / No. 3

By: Elizabeth Reed Dickie

Bislama: Pidgin English in the New Hebrides

New Hebrides is an area in the throes of rapid culture change. Being propelled into articulation with the Western world […]

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Vol. 17 / No. 3

By: Harold G. Levine

The Kafe: A New Guinea Highlands Group

From his ship off the southwest coast of Papua, the Dutch navigator Jan Carstensz observed and noted in his journal […]

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Vol. 17 / No. 4

By: Karen S. Rubinson

Herodotus and the Scythians

The Greek historian Herodotus (490/480-425 B.C.], in his History of the Persian Wars, included an excursus on the ethnography of […]

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Vol. 17 / No. 4

By: Alfred Friendly

Vindolanda

In the past two years British archaeol­ogists have discovered and in some part de­ciphered more than 240 fragments of 1st […]

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Vol. 17 / No. 4

By: David S. Reese

Men, Saints or Dragons?

“There were giants in the earth in those days…” Genesis 6:4 During the Pleistocene epoch of pre-history (three million to […]

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Vol. 17 / No. 4

By: Tamara Stech Wheeler, Robert Maddin and James D. Muhly

Ingots and the Bronze Age Copper Trade in the Mediterranean: A Progress Report

The last twenty years have seen an in­crease in scientific studies of archaeological materials resulting from the desire for greater […]

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Vol. 17 / No. 4

By: Donald White

Archaic Cyrene and the Cult of Demeter and Persephone

The rapid outward movement of the ancient Greeks from their mainland homes between the 10th and 6th centuries B.C., first […]

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Vol. 18 / No. 1

By: DeVerne Reed Smith

The Palauan Storyboards: From Traditional Architecture to Airport Art

As tourism has steadily increased in the Pacific, the sale of local handicrafts has become a profitable source of income […]

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Vol. 18 / No. 1

Carved Chlorite Vessels: A Trade in Finished Commodities in the Mid-Third Millennium

In 1987 a small survey team from the Peabody Museum, Harvard University located a large prehistoric mound. Tepe Yahya (or […]

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Vol. 18 / No. 1

By: Frances W. James

Yogurt: Its Life and Culture

One of the great puzzles of cultural diffusion is why yoğurt, that greatest of all the gastronomic gifts of Allah, […]

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Vol. 18 / No. 1

By: William H. Davenport

Lyrical Verse and Ritual in the Santa Cruz Islands

In the translation of the lyrics, the material in brackets has been added by the author to clarify the meaning. […]

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Vol. 18 / No. 2

By: Oliver C. Colburn

A Return to Sybaris

The annals of archaeology are replete with “lost” cities, once-flourishing communities which, for one reason or another, have vanished into […]

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Vol. 18 / No. 2

By: Jak Yakar and Jose Louis Garzon

The Survival of Ancient Traditions in the Popular Architecture of North-Central Turkey

This article deals with one of the numerous cultural aspects brought to light during the first excavation campaign at Ikiztepe, […]

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Vol. 18 / No. 2

By: Linny Schenk, Irene F. Bald, Marcia Bloom, Karen Chance, Gerald P. Schaus, Susan Tutweiler, Donald White and Brian R. MacDonald

Seven Recently Discovered Sculptures from Cyrene, Eastern Libya

Readers of this magazine have already been introduced to some features of the University Museum’s Cyrene project, but the focus […]

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Vol. 18 / No. 2

By: Elizabeth Carter and Matthew Stolper

Middle Elamite Malayan

Several lines of scholarly inquiry have recently drawn attention to Tall-i Malyan in south central Iran. The low mounds of […]

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Vol. 18 / No. 3

By: Angeliki Lebessi

A Sanctuary of Hermes and Aphrodite in Crete

In September 1972 a bulldozer opening up a minor road on the southern slopes of Mt. Dikte above the village […]

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Vol. 18 / No. 3

By: Frank L. Lambrecht

The Pastoral Nomads of Nigeria

No matter how far the town, there is another beyond it.” Fulani proverb Little affected by western ideas and technology […]

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Vol. 18 / No. 3

By: Michael A. Hoffman

The City of the Hawk: Seat of Egypt's Ancient Civilization

The origins of civilization have long aroused scientific curiosity and inflamed the popular imagination. At least six different times—in Mesopotamia, […]

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Vol. 18 / No. 3

By: Ann Guinan, Gary Oller and Dorothy Ormsby

Nippur Rebaked: The Conservation of Cuneiform Tablets

“The scribal art is the mother of orators, the father of masters, The scribal art is delightful, it never satiates […]

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Vol. 18 / No. 3

By: Elfriede R. Knauer

Some Aspects of the Classical Heritage in Afghanistan

Afghanistan is a landlocked country, very mountainous and dominated by the Hin­dukush range which springs from the Pamir knot and […]

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Vol. 18 / No. 4

By: Sir John Pope-Hennessy

The Museum as Forum

This article is based on a talk to the University Museum Fellows on November 6, 1975 by Sir John Pope-Hennessy, […]

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Vol. 18 / No. 4

By: James D. Muhly

University Museum-Thai Fine Arts Department Northeast Thailand Archaeological Project: Introduction

In this issue of Expedition, designed to be some small tribute to Froelich Rainey for his many years of inspired […]

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Vol. 18 / No. 4

By: Chester Gorman and Pisit Charoenwongsa

Ban Chiang: A Mosaic of Impressions from the First Two Years

Only a decade ago, Southeast Asia was regarded as a prehistoric cul-de-sac; that it might have been an important area […]

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Vol. 18 / No. 4

By: William Schauffler

Archaeological Survey and Excavation of Ban Chiang Culture Sites in Northeast Thailand

Human bones, bleached white by the sun or stained black by the soil are scattered about. Large painted pots with […]

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Vol. 18 / No. 4

By: Tamara Stech Wheeler and Robert Maddin

The Techniques of the Early Thai Metalsmith

Archaeological research in Thailand during the past decade has produced evidence of an early bronze metallurgical tradition, the beginnings of […]

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picture of Froelich Rainey

Vol. 18 / No. 4

By: Howard C. Peterson

Froelich Gladstone Rainey

A great period for the University Museum has been the 29-year directorship of Froelich Gladstone Rainey from 1947 to 1976. […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 1

“Just Add Water…”

The dehydrated civilization of course cannot be instantly reconstituted by stirring in the appropriate quantity of water. Water must be […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 1

By: David Van Horn

The Archaeological Survey: Chipped Stone

It was very clear from the outset of the Argolid Exploration Project’s first intensive survey season in 1972 that many […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 1

By: Michael H. Jameson

A Greek Countryside: Reports From the Argolid Exploration Project

Ancient Greece, perhaps more than any other great civilization, was a culture of many small communities closely tied to the […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 1

By: Hamish A. Forbes

The Thrice-Ploughed Field: Cultivation Techniques in Ancient and Modern Greece

Despite occasional pronouncements to the contrary, soil and climate seem to be two of the most changeless aspects of continuity […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 1

By: Mary Clark Forbes

The Pursuit of Wild Edibles, Present and Past

The Present The pursuit of wild edibles has become a popular pastime in these days of organic gar­dening and macrobiotic […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 1

By: Harold Koster

The Thousand Year Road

As the parched and brittle wheat fields flashed by the window and familiar smells of rock rose, thyme and pine […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 1

By: Joan Bouza Koster

From Spindle to Loom: Weaving in the Southern Argolid

In almost every Greek village black and white kerchiefed women cluster at midday in the cool shade of the stone […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 2

By: Frank L. Lambrecht

Kalahari Desert Trek Notes: From Lobatsi to Tsodilo Hills

Except in relation to the surrounding countries of the Republic of South Africa, Rhodesia and South West Africa, the Repub­lic […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 2

By: George F. Dales and Jonathan Mark Kenoyer

Shell Working at Ancient Balakot, Pakistan

Balakot is one of four known ancient coastal sites in Pakistan dating to the period of South Asia’s earliest civilization—the […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 2

By: Barbara Klamon Kopytoff

Guerilla Warfare in Eighteenth Century Jamaica

There is a story that when Christopher Columbus, after his second voyage to the New World in 1494, was asked […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 2

By: Schuyler V. R. Cammann

Cult of the Jambīya: Dagger Wearing in Yemen

On a recent visit to the Yemen Arab Republic, even before I left the National Airport, I was impressed by […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 2

By: Robert Maddin, Tamara Stech Wheeler and James D. Muhly

Tin in the Ancient Near East: Old Questions and New Finds

Bronze—an alloy of copper and tin—gave its name to one of the periods of antiquity. It is now clear that […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 2

By: James D. Muhly

From the Editor: Martin Biddle will take over as director of the University Museum.

On October 1, 1977, Martin Biddle, of Winchester, England, will take over as director of the University Museum. He will […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 3

By: Janet W. Nickerson

Malyan Wall Paintings

In 1971 and 1974 several fragmentary remains of ancient wall paintings were found during the course of excavations at Tall-i […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 3

By: Katheryn M. Linduff

The Incidence of Lead in Late Shang and Early Chou Ritual Vessels

No evidence confirming the general use of bronze in Ancient China, now attested by archaeological remains, can so far be […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 3

By: Bonita Freeman-Witthof

Cherokee Indian Craftswomen and the Economy of Basketry

Cherokee, North Carolina did an eighteen million dollar tourist business in 1972. Much of this money went to outsiders who […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 3

By: Denise Schmandt-Besserat

The Earliest Uses of Clay in Syria

Clay is a soft and rich earthy substance consisting primarily of hydrated silicates of aluminum. It is a product of […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 3

By: Paul G. Brewster

The Strange Practice of Firewalking

Of all phenomena, the ability of certain individuals to walk barefoot through fire without being burned is perhaps the most […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 4

By: Marija Gimbutas

Varna: A Sensationally Rich Cemetery of the Karanovo Civilization, About 4500 B.C.

The cemetery of Varna on the Black Sea coast in Bulgaria, excavated in 1973-76, is a prime addition to our […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 4

By: A. Gutkind Bulling

A Late Shang Place of Sacrifice and its Historical Significance

In 1959 the Museum in Nanking made a trial dig in a place called Ch’iu-wan in T’ung­shan county, in the […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 4

By: James D. Muhly

Editorial

The number of books published in the general field of archaeology seems to increase every year. And every year it […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 4

By: Orhan Aytug Tasyurek

The Urartian Bronze Hoard From Giyimli

Urartians, who appear with the name “Uruadri” in the Assyrian cuneiform inscrip­tions after the 13th century B.C., had estab­lished a […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 4

By: H. Bartlett Wells

Ancient Inventions for Tooling the Surfaces of Objects in Softer Metals

Collectors of ancient Greek copper coins have often been puzzled by central pits that they find in the metal of […]

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Vol. 19 / No. 4

By: Elizabeth Lyons

Southeast Asia: The Changing Scene

In January of this year, 1977, I was in Burma trying to recruit a Burmese archaeolo­gist for the new Ford […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 1

Special Issue Introduction – Fall 1977

This special issue of Expedition is in honor of the publication of Ur Excavations (U.E.) volume VII and the completion […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 1

By: Martin Biddle

New Directions – Fall 1977: The Director Writes

At the conclusion of the distinguished directorship of Froelich Rainey, reaching back over some of the most formative years of […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 1

By: Sir Max Mallowan

Recollections of C. Leonard Woolley

On the grounds that I am one of the living survivors of the early seasons at Ur, (1922-1934) the Editor […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 1

By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

Archival Glimpses of the Ur Expedition in the Years 1920 to 1926

All expeditions are a complex network of interlocking political and social events involving people, institutions and govern­ments. Among the common […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 1

By: P. R. S. Moorey

What Do We Know About the People Buried in the Royal Cemetery?

Woolley’s excavation of the royal graves at Ur is one of the technical triumphs of Near Eastern field archaeology and […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 1

By: Samuel Noah Kramer

The Ur Excavations and Sumerian Literature

Leonard Woolley’s excavations at Ur have been justly acclaimed for their extraordinary, unexpected, and invaluable archaeological discoveries: the royal ceme­tery, […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 2

By: John R. Abercrombie

Egyptian Papyri: The University Museum's Collection of Papyri and Related Materials

In a second century A.D. Greek epistle a well-intentioned father offers some free advice to his son, who was probably […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 2

University Museum Announcements – Winter 1978

Grant Applications Applications have been made by the University Museum for the following Federal grants. National Science Foundation: Center Support […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 2

By: Jeffrey S. Soles

Mochlos: A New Look at Old Excavations: The University Museum's Work on Crete

The island of Mochlos, a large out­cropping of rock about 350 meters long, rises from the sea just off the […]

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Museum Exterior

Vol. 20 / No. 2

By: Martin Biddle

New Directions – Winter 1978: The Director Writes

In the last issue I asked some questions about what sort of institution the University Museum ought to be. In […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 2

By: A. Gutkind Bulling

Ancient Chinese Maps: Two maps discovered in a Han Dynasty tomb from the second century B.C.

Among the many important excavations carried out in recent years in the People’s Republic of China three tombs deserve special […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 2

By: James D. Muhly

Ancient Cartography: Man's Earliest Attempts to Represent His World

The remarkable Chinese maps published by Mrs. Bulling in the previous article indicate that in cartography, as in many other […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 2

By: Leonard Gorelick and A. John Gwinnett

Ancient Seals and Modern Science: Using the Scanning Electron Microscope as an Aid in the Study of Ancient Seals

While ancient cylinder seals have been studied and reported in great detail, especially as to their iconography, there have been […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 3

By: Ann Ashmead

Greek Cats: Exotic Cats Kept by Rich Youths in Fifth Century B.C. Athens, as Portrayed on Greek Vases

Some years ago a Greek vase (Figs. 1, 2) that the University Museum had lent to Bryn Mawr College aroused […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 3

By: Martin Biddle

New Directions – Spring 1978: The Director Writes

In the last issue of Expedition I wrote about the University Museum’s existing archives and their care. This time I […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 3

University Museum Announcements – Spring 1978

Grant Received The National Science Foundation has awarded the University Museum a grant in the amount of $61,337, effective September […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 3

By: Elizabeth Lyons

Chinese Jades: The Role of Jade in Ancient China: An Introduction to a Special Exhibition at the University Museum

For some four thousand years, the Chinese have considered jade to be a unique substance and have held it in […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 3

By: Carol Thomas

Found: The Dorians: Archaeology and Greek Linguistics at the End of the Late Bronze Age

There can be no doubt that the Myce­naean civilization of Bronze Age Greece was destroyed in the course of the […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 3

By: Frank L. Lambrecht

Mabudu: A Report on a Vanishing Culture in the Northeastern Corner of the Congo Basin as it existed in 1948

In the northeastern corner of the Congo Basin rainforest lies a region known as Kibali-Ituri named after the two rivers […]

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Museum Exterior

Vol. 20 / No. 4

University Museum Announcements – Summer 1978

Grants Received The National Endowment for the Arts has approved a Visiting Specialist grant to the University Museum for work […]

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Museum Exterior

Vol. 20 / No. 4

By: Martin Biddle

New Directions – Summer 1978: The Director Writes

The Museum holds some of man’s great works of art—from the world of the Maya, from Burner, from China—but it […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 4

By: Ram Gophna

En-Bensor: An Egyptian First Dynasty Staging Post in the Northern Negev

The lower part of the Besor Valley (Wadi Ghazza) cut its way through the flat loess lands of the northwestern […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 4

By: Ze'ev Herzog, Shmuel Moshkowitz, Ora Negbi and Anson F. Rainey

Tel Michal: A Coastal Site in the Sharon Plain

Tel Michal (Makmish) is situated on a kurkar (sandstone) ridge covered with sand dunes in the southern environs of the […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 4

By: Itzhak Beit-Arieh

A Canaanite Site Near Sheikh Mukhsen: Real Discoveries in Southern Sinai

During the past ten years, Israeli archaeologists have been investigating early sites which have been discovered in the wilderness of […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 4

By: Moshe Kochavi

Canaanite Aphek: Its Acropolis and Inscriptions

Excavation of Aphek-Antipatris Since 1972 a two-months excavation season has been carried out each summer at Tel Aphek (Tell Ras […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 4

By: Ze'ev Meshel

Kuntillet ‘Ajrud: An Israelite Religious Center in Northern Sinai

By which routes did the kings of Judah travel to Eilat and Ezion-Geber? And where was the southwestern border of […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 4

By: David Ussishkin

Lachish: Renewed Archaeological Excavations

Lachish and the Previous Excavations Lachish was one of the most important cities of the Biblical era in the Holy […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 4

By: Aharon Kempinski

Tel Masos: Its Importance in Relation to the Settlement of the Tribes of Israel in the Northern Negev.

Tel Masos (Arabic Hirbet eI-Meshash) is situated on the edge of Wadi Beer-sheba, approximately 12 km. east of the modern […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 4

By: A. Horowitz

Human Settlement Pattern in Israel: A Discussion of the Impact of Environment

Israel is situated at the juxtaposition of several major environmental domains: the Euro-Siberian, Irano-Turanian, Mediterranean, Saharian and Sudanese. Longitudinally, the […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 4

By: Ze'ev Herzog

Israelite City Planning: Seen in the Light of the Beer-Sheba and Arad Excavations.

Although numerous Israelite cities have been excavated in Israel, the relatively small proportion of the total city area excavated and […]

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Vol. 20 / No. 4

By: Jak Yakar and Ayşe Gursan-Salzmann

The Provinces of Malatya and Sivas: An Archaeological Survey of Preclassical Sites

The Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University has in recent years promoted the active participation and collaboration of some […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 1

By: Keith DeVries

Diving Into the Mediterranean: Greek and Etruscan Paintings Reveal a Sport of Antiquity

A scattering of representations and an­cient written references, ambiguous or unhelpful when studied separately, reveal when brought together a not […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 1

University Museum Announcements – Fall 1978

Grant Received The National Science Foundation has awarded the University Museum a grant ii the amount of $61,337, effective Septembe […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 1

By: Martin Biddle

New Directions – Fall 1978: The Director Writes

In the Summer issue of Expedition, in writing about the University Museum’s collections, I touched on the question of acquisitions […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 1

By: Borislav Jovanovic

The Oldest Copper Metallurgy in the Balkans: A Study of the Diffusion of Copper from Asia Minor to Southeastern Europe.

The flourishing of copper metallurgy during the Eneolithic or Chalcolithic period in the Balkans and Carpathian Basin has led to […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 1

By: Elfriede R. Knauer

Toward a History of the Sleeved Coat: A Study of the Impact of an Ancient Eastern Garment on the West.

“Voici le prince Guillaume, futur prince héritier,  il est dans le plus extravagant et le plus complet uniforme de hussards rouges qui […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 1

By: Hamish A. Forbes and Lin Foxhall

“The Queen of All Trees”: Preliminary Notes on the Archaeology of the Olive.

A visitor walking through a village in southern Greece early this winter might well hear ominous rumblings coming from the […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 2

The University, the Museum and the Study of Ancient Egypt

“The Eckley B. Coxe, Jr. Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania did solid but unsensational work in Nubia and then […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 2

By: Bernard Wailes

Editorial: Archaeological Salvage in Egypt: An Example of International Cooperation

This issue of Expedition is devoted entirely to the involvement of the Univer­sity Museum in Egyptology, from the 1890’s to […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 2

The University Museum Expedition to Dra Abu El Naga

Dra abu el Naga is the Arabic name for a site in Thebes, north of Deir el Bahri, not too […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 2

By: David O'Connor

The University Museum Excavations at the Palace-City of Malkata

Urbanism was an essential element in ancient Egyptian culture, for its pre­dominantly rural society was held together, and its extraordinary […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 2

By: Donald B. Redford

The Akhenaten Temple Project and Karnak Excavations

Scholarly study of the reign of Akhena­ten, pharaoh of Egypt (ca. 1375-1357 B.C.), has focused with justification on the last […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 2

By: William Kelly Simpson

The Pennsylvania-Yale Giza Project

The story of the Pennsylvania-Yale Project at Giza takes us back to the be­ginning of American archaeological work in Egypt. […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 2

The Egyptian Collection

The Egyptian collection of the University Museum came into being during the last decade of the 1800’s. It was then […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 2

By: David O'Connor

Abydos: The University Museum-Yale Expedition

The provincial centers of ancient Egypt were vital elements in its political, eco­nomic and religious systems and their re­mains reflect […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 2

The Museum in the Field

“To be a good (archaeological) finder one needs a peculiar quality which is not altogether erudition—the hog which is most […]

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Museum Exterior

Vol. 21 / No. 2

The Egyptian Antiquities Organisation

The Egyptological achievements of the University Museum owed much to the generosity of Eckley B. Coxe, Jr. and to the […]

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Museum Exterior

Vol. 21 / No. 2

University Museum Announcements – Winter 1979

Museum Institute for Conservation Archaeology (MICA) The Museum Institute for Conservation Archaeology (MICA) has been formed at the University Museum, University […]

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Museum Exterior

Vol. 21 / No. 2

By: Martin Biddle

New Directions – Winter 1979: The Director Writes

In the last issue I wrote about the great size of our collections, the invisible nine-tenths—if not ninety-nine hundredths—of the […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 2

By: Chester Beatty, IV

Eckley Brinton Coxe, Jr.

Not many men would, some sixty years after their death, be celebrated by a great research institution, but Eckley B. […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 2

By: David O'Connor and David Silverman

The University Museum in Egypt: The Past

Introduction “Do not reproach someone older than you, for he has seen the Sun before you.” The Instruction of Amenemope, […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 3

University Museum Announcements – Spring 1979

Appointment Dr. William H. Davenport, Curator of the Oceanian Section, has been appointed Associate Director of the Museum. Grants Received […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 3

By: Martin Biddle

New Directions – Spring 1979: The Director Writes

It’s all very well to write somewhat owlishly about ‘reserve collections’ and the horizontal’ versus ‘the vertical’ approach to museum […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 3

By: Bernard Wailes

Ireland and Europe: Introduction

Ireland: Archaeology and History The equation of ‘civilization’ with cities centralized government and literacy has long prejudiced us against societies […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 3

By: Sean O Nuallain

The Megalithic Tombs of Ireland: Neolithic Tombs and Their Art.

The earliest evidence of human activity in Ireland occurs mainly in the northeast of the country and has been assigned […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 3

By: Holly Burton

The Arrival of the Celts in Ireland: Archaeology and Linguistics.

When did the Celts arrive in Ireland? The question has plagued linguists and archaeologists alike for a century. By the […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 3

By: Joan J. Taylor

Early Bronze Age Technology and Trade: The Evidence of Irish Gold.

Ireland was the focus of the Western European “Golden Age” by virtue of the impressive quantity of gold ornaments produced […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 3

By: Bella Schauman

Early Irish Manuscripts: The Art of the Scribes.

Ireland’s early books are interesting both in and of themselves and as cultural arti­facts. The following pages present an archaeological […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 4

By: Margaret Thompson

Hoards and Overstrikes: The Numismatic Evidence

Coins contribute little to a discussion of Mediterranean trade in the 6th century, for there are no relevant hoards which […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 4

By: John Boardman

The Athenian Pottery Trade: The Classical Period

Athenian pottery traveled far, and often in quantity. The limits of distribution range from Spain through central Europe, South Russia, […]

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Museum Exterior

Vol. 21 / No. 4

By: Martin Biddle

New Directions – Summer 1979: The Director Writes

An important—perhaps too important—way of judging a museum’s success or failure is to look at the number of its visitors. […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 4

By: Cynthia Jones Eiseman

The Mediterranean Market: Aspects of Trade in Classical Times

Introduction In this issue of Expedition we publish the proceedings of a symposium entitled “The Mediterranean Market: Aspects of Trade […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 4

By: G. Kenneth Sams

Imports at Gordion: Lydian and Persian Periods

Sometime during the first quarter of the 7th century, invading marauders known to history as the Kimmerians brought to an […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 4

By: Peter S. Wells and Larissa Bonfante

West-Central Europe and the Mediterranean: The Decline in Trade in the Fifth Century B.C.

The Problem Massalia, the Greek city on the site of modern Marseille, was founded about 600 B.C. by Ionian Greeks […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 4

University Museum Announcements

Appointments The Museum is proud to announce the appointment of Spyros Iakovidis, Professor of Classical Archaeology in the University of […]

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Vol. 21 / No. 4

By: Lionel Casson

Traders and Trading: Classical Athens

In the 5th and 4th centuries B.C. Athens fed its population-150,000 by conserva­tive estimates—chiefly on grain imported from south Russia, […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 1

University Museum Announcements – Fall 1979

The Southeast Asia Section In 1971 the Ford Foundation established an Art and Archaeology project for South­east Asia with headquarters […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 1

By: Elizabeth Lyons

A Pair of Chinese Grave Urns: A Recent Gift to the Oriental Section of the Museum

The Chinese collection of the University Museum has recently been enriched, and enlivened, by a pair of southern Chinese grave […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 1

By: A. John Gwinnett and Leonard Gorelick

Ancient Lapidary: A Study Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Functional Analysis

In the chronology of the development of ancient stone tools, drills and drilling were late additions to paleolithic technology. They […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 1

By: Martin Biddle

New Directions – Fall 1979: The Director Writes

The students who come to the Museum as the most dis­tinguished cultural resource on Campus are welcome and fortunate, as […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 1

Edward Sheriff Curtis: 1868-1952: The Shadow Catcher

Edward S. Curtis spent thirty-seven years in the field photographing, docu­menting and reconstructing life on the North American continent west […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 1

By: Frances W. James

The Revelation of Jerusalem: A Review of Archaeological Research

Ever since the year 587 B.C. when the Temple was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar and the 18-year old Jehoiachin of Judah […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 2

University Museum Announcements

Grants Received By the Educational Department from the Philadelphia Foundation, the Ludwick Institute and the Seybert Foundation to present a […]

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Museum Exterior

Vol. 22 / No. 2

By: Martin Biddle

New Directions – Winter 1980: The Director Writes

Over the past two and a half years, I have tried on this page to give a director’s-eye view of […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 2

By: Judith A. Lerner

Three Achaemenid “Fakes”: A Re-evaluation in the Light of 19th Century Iranian Architectural Sculpture

It often happens that forgeries (objects made in a particular style deliberately to deceive) and fakes (genuine works of art […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 2

By: Martin Biddle and Birthe Kjolbye-Biddle

England’s Premier Abbey: The Medieval Chapter House of St. Albans Abbey, and its Excavation in 1978

Twenty miles northwest of London, the great highway of Watling Street passes through the Roman city of Verulamium, the second […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 2

By: Robert Abramson

The Big Drum in the Big City: Creole Enculturation in the Pan West-Indian Community of Brooklyn, N.Y.

In the summertime in New York, you don’t have to wait for the airline com­mercials to hear the sounds of […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 2

By: Cynthia Jones Eiseman

Greek Lead: Ingots from a Shipwreck Raise Questions About Metal Trade in Classical Times

Metals and metallurgy are of great interest to archaeologists, and much has been written in these pages and elsewhere recently […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 3

By: Schuyler V. R. Cammann

A Rare “Jade” Book: A Manchu Emperor's Edict carved on Panels of Jade

Often a museum exhibition on a special subject will bring to light interesting objects in private hands. A casual visitor […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 3

By: Martin Biddle

New Directions – Spring 1980: The Director Writes

In the next few numbers of Expedition I shall take a look at the Museum’s research in the field now and in […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 3

By: Homer A. Thompson

Stone, Tile and Timber: Commerce in Building Materials in Classical Athens

In a familiar passage of his essay, Ways and Means (1,4) Xenophon lists the natural resources of Attica. He praises […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 3

The Pennsylvania Declaration: Decision of Curators of the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, April 1, 1970

The curatorial faculty of The University Museum today reached the unanimous conclusion that they would purchase no more art objects […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 3

The University Museum Acquisitions Policy: May 2, 1978

Whereas, in the spirit of the April 1, 1970 decision of the Board of Managers of The Univer­sity Museum of […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 3

By: Mauritizio Gualteiri

Roccagloriosa: Excavation of the Site of a Greek Colony in Southern Italy

The problem of the contacts between the Greek colonists settled along the coast and in the fertile valleys of southern […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 3

By: Carl P. Beetz

Caracol Thirty Years Later: A Preliminary Account of Two Rulers

This year marks the beginning of the third decade since the University Museum began its interest in the ancient Maya site of Caracol, […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 3

By: Douglas W. Gould

The Uncertain Fate of a Princely Diversion: An Historical Survey of Tops

Sculptured on the walls of the palace of Ariris (formerly read Araras) at Carche­mish, ca. 780 B.C., is the representation […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 4

By: Mary Martin

Making A Living In Turan: Animals, Land and Wages

Ten years ago Sohrab Alavi was home in his Turan village only five or six months of the year. Since […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 4

By: Mary Martin

Pastoral Production: Milk and Firewood in the Ecology of Turan

Pastoral production in Turan focuses on milk. Goats are the major producers because they are in milk from late February […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 4

By: Endre Nyerges

Traditional Pastoralism: An Evolutionary Perspective

Archaeological evidence indicates that the earliest domestication of sheep and goats occurred in the Middle East about 10,000 years ago. […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 4

By: Christopher L. Hamlin

The Temporal Dimension: Monitoring the Changing Ecology of Settlement in Turan

The settlement system in Turan is changing continously. Some of the changes are cyclical, related to such regular processes as […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 4

University Museum Announcements

Grants Received From the National Endowment for the Humanities, $74,915 toward Phase II research on the Gordion Project. Also from […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 4

By: Martin Biddle

New Directions – Summer 1980: The Director Writes

`… nor will they knowingly support this illegal trade by authenticating or expressing opinions concerning such material, and will actively […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 4

By: Brian I. Spooner and Lee Horne

Cultural and Ecological Perspectives from the Turan Program, Iran

Introduction The Historical Significance of Deserts A zone of arid and semi-arid country stretches from the Atlantic through north­ern Africa […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 4

By: Lee Horne

Dryland Settlement Location: Social and Natural Factors in the Distribution of Settlements in Turan

Settlement in Turan takes three principal forms: year-round permanent villages, summer milking stations, and winter sheep stations. This three-way division […]

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Vol. 22 / No. 4

By: Lee Horne

Village Morphology: The Distribution of Structures and Activities in Turan Villages

The thirteen villages of central Tauran are small, highly nucleated, and irregular in plan. Beginning from the foothills of Mount […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 1

By: Robert J. Sharer

The Quirigua Project, 1974-1979: A brief outline of the development and structure of the research

In December 1973, after over one year of feasibility studies and negotiations in Guatemala, a contract forming the Quirigun Project was […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 1

By: Christopher Jones and Robert J. Sharer

Archaeological Investigations in the Site Core of Quirigua: Epigraphic and archaeological data now provide evidence of an occupation history spanning half a millennium

Quirigua’s dynastic and constructional history was of central concern to the site-core excavations. Since we last considered these topics (Jones […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 1

By: Edward M. Schortman

Archaeological Investigations in the Lower Montagua Valley: Survey and excavations have revealed marked differences between Quirigua and the other major centers in this valley

The lower Motagua valley, situated in the tropical lowlands of Guatemala between the major Maya site of Quirigua and the […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 1

By: Wendy Ashmore

Discovering Early Classic Quirigua: A Unique Opportunity to Examine an Important Sector of the Early Center

The discovery came, one could say, just in the nick of time. The Quirigua Project had been scheduled to run […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 1

By: Martin Biddle

New Directions – Fall 1980: The Director Writes

The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania voted on 6 December 1887 to send ‘an exploring expedition to Babylon’—perhaps the […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 1

University Museum Announcements – Fall 1980

A Masai Exhibition As part of the Black Centennary (1879­-1980) celebration at Penn, The University Museum will present a traveling […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 1

By: Wendy Ashmore

The Classic Maya Settlement at Quirigua: Recent Agricultural Activities Have Helped Reveal the Extent of the Buried Settlement

Ever since the visit of Frederick Cather­wood in 1840, scholars and laymen alike have been attracted to the Maya ruins […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 2

University Museum Announcements – Winter 1981

“What in the World?” This favorite program of television viewers during the 1950’s and ’60’s is being revived. An all-new […]

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Museum Exterior

Vol. 23 / No. 2

By: Martin Biddle

New Directions – Winter 1981: The Director Writes

In the last issue I wrote about the University Museum’s exceptional commitment to field research and listed some of the […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 2

By: William H. Davenport

Male Initiation in Aoriki: Man and the Spirits in the Eastern Solomon Islands

Aoriki, or Santa Catalina Island as it is marked on charts of the southwest Pacific Ocean, is located at the […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 2

By: Kay Ross

Shell Ornaments of Malaita: Currency and Ritual Valuables in the Central Solomons

Malaita is an island in the Solomon chain which lies southeast of New Guinea. Inhabited by about 60,000 Melanesians, it […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 2

By: Leonard Gorelick and A. John Gwinnett

Close Work Without Magnifying Lenses?: A Hypothetical Explanation for the Ability of Ancient Craftsmen to Effect Minute Detail

To many, a puzzling mystery of the ancient world is how minute artifacts or parts of them were made without […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 2

By: James G. Flanagan

Hatmen of the Mountains: Aspects of Ethnic Identity in the New Guinea Highlands

In recent years, anthropologists in Papua New Guinea have begun to work more with ‘peripheral’ peoples; in particular those who […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 3

By: Maria C. Shaw

Sir Arthur Evans At Kommos: A Cretan Village Remembers its Past

The four elderly gentlemen shown in Figs. 3, 7, 9, 10 have a few things in com­mon. Their ages range […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 3

By: Ruben E. Reina and John Monaghan

The Ways of The Maya: Salt Production in Sacapulas, Guatemala

Guatemalans of Maya ancestry, living in rural communities, possess a wide variety of skills and technologies for the manu­facture of […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 3

By: Michael Parrington

Medical Archaeology in Philadelphia: A Study of Early Twentieth Century Medicine Bottles Excavated at Bartram's Garden

Introduction Bartram’s Garden, located on the Schuylkill River in Southwest Philadelphia, was the home of John Bartram, the eighteenth century […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 3

By: Ilene M. Nicholas

Investigating An Ancient Suburb: Excavations at the TUV Mound, Tal-e-Malyan, Iran

Archaeology is often described as the science of the human past, a discipline which seeks to explain such complex phenomena […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 3

University Museum Announcements – Spring 1981

Appointments James A. Sauer will take up his duties as Associate Curator-in-charge of Syro-Palestinian Archaeology in July. He obtained his […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 3

By: Martin Biddle

New Directions – Spring 1981

For over ninety years The University Museum has been digging ancient sites and studying contemporary traditional communities virtually alI over […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 4

The Ancient Craft and Art of the Lapidary: Introduction

In 1971 the papers given at an important symposium on “Archaeological Chemistry” were published. One of the noted partici­pants was […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 4

By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

Carleton S. Coon

Carleton Coon was a large bear of a man with a shock of white hair and a devilish sense of […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 4

By: Froelich Rainey

Chester Gorman

The tragic death of Chester Gorman just as he was completing the proof of one of the world’s great archaeological […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 4

By: Gregory L. Possehl

Cambay Beadmaking: An Ancient Craft in Modern India

Cambay is a small city, population about 50,000, on the coast of Gujarat state in western India. This name is […]

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Museum Exterior

Vol. 23 / No. 4

University Museum Announcements – Summer 1981

President Sheldon Hackney has asked Robert H. Dyson, Jr., Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences and Curator of […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 4

By: Darlene Loding

Lapidaries in the Ur III Period: Written Sources Concerning Stoneworkers (ca. 2000 B.C.)

Evidence for the products manufactured by stoneworkers in Mesopotamia in ancient times is, of course, best displayed by those objects […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 4

By: Leonard Gorelick and A. John Gwinnett

Close Work Without Magnifying Lenses?: Discussion of suggestions from readers of Expedition

One of the purposes of our paper in the Winter 1981 issue of Expedition called “Close Work Without Magnifying Lenses?” […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 4

By: Leonard Gorelick and A. John Gwinnett

The Origin and Development of the Ancient Near Eastern Cylinder Seal: A Hypothetical Reconstruction

One purpose of this paper is to discuss and speculate on the origin and develop­ment of one of the most […]

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Vol. 23 / No. 4

By: John G. Younger

Creating a Sealstone: A Study of Seals in the Greek Late Bronze Age

Our evidence for the techniques of creating a sealstone in the Greek Late Bronze Age (roughly 1600-1200 B.C.) comes almost […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 1

By: John S. Kopper

Paleolithic Tools: Some Design Considerations

Paleolithic tools have seldom been ana­lyzed from the design viewpoint. We know a great deal about how they were made […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 1

By: A. John Gwinnett

Beadmaking in Iran in the Early Bronze Age: Derived by Scanning Electron Microscopy

Introduction The techniques used to manufacture the ubiquitous bead occupy a significant place in the development of lapidary technology Fashioned […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 1

By: Manuel Keene

The Lapidary Arts in Islam: An Underappreciated Tradition

Islamic Gemstones and Gemology One can hardly think of jewelry without thinking of gemstones so strongly asso­ciated are they, both […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 1

By: Leonard Gorelick

The Ancient Craft and Art of the Lapidary

This present issue of Expedition, like the previous one, is a special number devoted to the subject of the ancient […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 1

By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

University Museum Announcements

With the return of Martin Biddle to England at the end of June, The University Museum has passed into a […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 2

By: George A. Corbin

Chachet Baining Art: In a Day and Night Dance Celebration at Walmatki Village on the Gazelle Peninsula, East New Britain, Papua New Guinea

The Chachet Baining people live in the northwestern area of the Gazelle Peninsula. They have long been known for their […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 2

By: William H. Davenport

A History of the Museum’s Polynesian Collection: The Curators Write

On January 28th the Museum will open a new permanent exhibition called “Poly­nesia.” The new exhibition replaces one called “Oceania,” […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 2

By: Edward F. Wente

Funerary Beliefs of the Ancient Egyptians: An Interpretation of the Burials and the Texts

Some Egyptologists feel that mummies create a false impression of an ancient people preoccupied with death and morbid­ity, and therefore […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 2

By: Bernard V. Bothmer

On Realism in Egyptian Funerary Sculpture: Of the Old Kingdom

Among the major arts associated with the funerary cults of ancient Egypt—sculp­ture, relief and painting—none gives us a deeper understanding […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 2

By: Robert M. Hill, II

Ancient Maya Houses: At Cauinal and Pueblo Viejo Chixoy el Quiche, Guatemala

The unique combination of Maya chron­icles, e.g. the Popol Vuh and Annals of the Cakchiquels, descriptions written by Spanish friars […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 3

By: Robert M. Hill, II

Ancient Maya Houses: At Cauinal and Pueblo Viejo Chixoy, el Quiche, Guatemala — II

INTRODUCTORY NOTE The text of this article, with accompanying photographs, was published in the last issue of Expedition: Vol. 24, […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 3

By: Nicholas Freidin

Early Iron Age Luxury Imports: Into the Paris Basin

Introduction The study of Early Iron Age luxury bronze imports in Trans-Alpine Europe has tended to spotlight the better-documented regions […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 3

By: Robert L. Trescher

A New Director of the University Museum: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

At the end of the decade, the University will celebrate the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Museum, and […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 3

By: Irene Bald Romano

Early Greek Idols: Their Appearance and Significance in the Geometric, Orientalizing and Archaic Periods

For many the sculpture of ancient Greece is almost a synonym for Greek culture itself. Sculpture did indeed play an […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 3

By: Gretchen Anderson Gwynne

Pipestave Hollow Ideography: Possible Calendrical Notations from the Northeast

Alexander Marshack (1972) has argued that some incised designs on Old World artifacts—mainly from the Upper Palaeo­lithic—were notational and, in […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 3

By: Arthur Miller

Archaeological Looting: A New Approach to the Problem

Introduction On September 18, 1981, Guatemala and its partner in archaeological research, The University Museum, suffered an indirect attack by […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 3

By: Erle Leichty

The Sumerian Dictionary: The Curators Write

Just above the Kress gallery in the north­east corner of The University Museum lies a little frequented area of the […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 4

By: James S. Penny, Jr.

Petchabun Piedmont Survey: An Initial Archaeological Investigation of the Western Margins of the Khorat Plateau

The Petchabun Mountains stand in sharp contrast to the nearly level land which comprises most of the Khorat Plateau, northeast […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 4

By: Charles Higham and Amphan Kijngam

Prehistoric Man and His Environment: Evidence from the Ban Chiang Faunal Remains

The excavations at Ban Chiang have opened a new chapter in our understanding of Southeast Asian prehistory, not only because […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 4

By: Gregory L. Possehl

The Curators Write: The Museum's Ban Chiang Project

It is my privilege, after the untimely death just over a year ago of my friend and colleague Chet Gorman, […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 4

By: Elizabeth Lyons and Froelich Rainey

The Road to Ban Chiang: A Dialogue of Events Leading to The University Museum's Participation in the Expedition

Foreword by Miss Lyons The Ban Chiang Project began in the late 1960s when Dr. Froelich Rainey was Direc­tor of […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 4

By: Pisit Charoenwongsa

Ban Chiang in Retrospect: What the Expedition Means to Archaeologists and the Thai Public

Without the accidental discoveries in 1957 by a local villager and the subsequent archaeological work [beginning in 1967), Ban Chiang […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 4

By: Joyce C. White

Natural History Investigations at Ban Chiang: The Study of Natural Resources and Their Use Today Aids Reconstruction of Early Village Farming in Prehistory

Although social scientists have long con­sidered Southeast Asia a cultural back­water of China and India, biologists have noted since the […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 4

By: Joyce C. White, Deborah Wong, Lois Kratz and Cheryl Applebaum

Processing the Ban Chiang Finds: With Particular Reference to Volunteer and Student Work at The University Museum

Following the completion of the 1975 excavation at Ban Chiang, all the material recovered from the two seasons of excava­tion […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 4

By: John Hastings

Potsherds Into Printouts: The Ban Chiang Computer Project

As a new recruit to the Ban Chiang lab 1 was astonished at the huge quantity and variety of material […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 4

By: Michael Pietrusewsky

The Ancient Inhabitants of Ban Chiang: The Evidence from the Human Skeletal and Dental Remains

Introduction Studies of human skeletal and dental remains excavated at Ban Chiang provide physical anthropologists with some impor­tant insights into […]

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Vol. 24 / No. 4

By: Douglas E. Yen

Ban Chiang Pottery and Rice: A Discussion of the Inclusions in the Pottery Matrix

Rice (Oriza sativa) remains are hardly novel discoveries in Asian archaeology. Reported as grain husks or glumes, charred endosperms or […]

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Vol. 25 / No. 1

By: Vincent C. Pigott

Archaeometallurgy and the University of Pennsylvania: Introduction

In December 1982, the Archaeological Institute of America holds its annual meet­ing, in Philadelphia. Of the various scholarly issues to […]

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Vol. 25 / No. 1

By: Lee Horne

Fuel For The Metal Worker: The Role of Charcoal and Charcoal Production In Ancient Metallurgy

As an accidental by-product of combus­tion, wood charcoal has certainly been known for as long as fire itself. Very prob­ably […]

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Vol. 25 / No. 1

By: Serge Cleuziou and Thierry Berthoud

Early Tin in the Near East: A Reassessment in the Light of New Evidence from Western Afghanistan

Numerous scholars in different dis­ciplines have devoted considerable thought to the sources of the tin and copper used to make […]

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Vol. 25 / No. 1

By: Vincent C. Pigott

The Innovation of Iron: Cultural Dynamics in Technological Change

Scholars concerned with the phenome­non of ancient iron metallurgy have emphasized the interrelationship between the analytical, historical and archaeologi­cal evidence […]

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Vol. 25 / No. 1

By: P.G. Warden, Robert Maddin, Tamara Stech and James D. Muhly

Copper and Iron Production at Poggio Civitate (Murlo): Analysis of Metalworking Archaic Etruscan Site

Since 1966 excavations at Poggio Civitate (Murlo), a site in central Italy about twenty kilometers south of Siena (Fig. 1), […]

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Vol. 25 / No. 1

By: Helen Schenck

The Iron Industry Underground: The Archaeology of Historic American Iron Technology

Introduction The traditional date for the founding of the American iron industry is 1622. In that year the English-based Virginia […]

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Vol. 25 / No. 2

By: Mary Elizabeth Ruwell and Eleanor M. King

Rediscovering the Eskimo: From the Archives

The University Museum Archives repre­sents a unique resource for researchers in archaeology, anthropology, history, classics and related fields. A preliminary […]

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Vol. 25 / No. 2

By: Sandra T. Barnes and Paula Ben-Amos

Benin, Oyo, and Dahomey: Warfare, State Building, and the Sacralization of Iron in West African History

Note This article was intended originally for EXPEDITION 25 no. 1 (Fall 1902), the special issue on Archaeometallurgy. For reasons […]

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Vol. 25 / No. 2

By: Albert J. Ammerman

Early Italian Pottery: Five Vessels from a Neolithic Household in Calabria

Pottery is a standard item for archaeolog­ical analysis—it was made by most later prehistoric and historic societies, it dis­plays a […]

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Vol. 25 / No. 2

By: Daniel Martin Virasco

Irrigation in an Arabian Valley: A System of Highland Terraces in the Yemen Arab Rep

The popular image of Arabia is of an arid landscape peopled with nomadic Bedouins riding their camels through the sandy […]

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Vol. 25 / No. 2

By: Roderick J. McIntosh and Susan Keech McIntosh

Forgotten Tells of Mali: New Evidence of Urban Beginnings in West Africa

The regular reader of Expedition and, almost certainly, every professional archae­ologist has at one time or another experi­enced the spell […]

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Vol. 25 / No. 2

By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

Volunteers

The many volunteers who participate in the wide range of activities of the Univer­sity Museum form an indispensable resource in […]

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Vol. 25 / No. 3

By: Arlen F. Chase and Diane Z. Chase

Intensive Gardening Among the Late Classic Maya: A Possible Example at Ixtutz, Guatemala

The low lying areas of the Southern Maya Lowlands of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize were at one time crisscrossed with […]

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Vol. 25 / No. 3

By: Barbara J. Hayden

Work Continues at Vrokastro 1910-12, 1979-82: A New Plan and Description of the Early Iron Age Settlement

Richard Seager originally identified the early Iron Age settlement of Vrokastro, on a limestone spur (Fig. 1) just south of […]

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Vol. 25 / No. 3

By: Karla Klein Albertson

The Return of The University Museum Demeter: A Greek Goddess Attempts to Establish Her Identity

For more than forty years a graceful marble statuette of a Greek goddess (Figs. 1-3) stood unnoticed in a storage […]

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Vol. 25 / No. 3

By: Carolyn Fleuhr-Lobban

Challenging Some Myths: Women in Shari'a (Islamic) Law in the Sudan

Perhaps no other topic in Islamic law has drawn such attention in the West as that of the purported low […]

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Vol. 25 / No. 3

By: Leonard Gorelick and A. John Gwinnett

Ancient Egyptian Stone-Drilling: An Experimental Perspective on a Scholarly Disagreement

More than most technical procedures in the ancient world, drilling of hard stone such as quartz and granite has evoked […]

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Vol. 25 / No. 4

By: Elfriede Regina Knauer

The Fifth Century A.D. Buddhist Cave Temples At Yün-Kang, North China: A Look at Their Western Connections

The Yün-kang caves belong to a string of early Buddhist cave temples that stretches across northern China from Kansu in […]

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Vol. 25 / No. 4

By: Mary Bert Gutman

The Women’s Committee: Its History, Aims, and Accomplishments

Introduction With the Centennial of the University Museum approaching, various projects on its history are under way, and some may […]

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Vol. 25 / No. 4

By: Elizabeth Simpson

Reconstructing An Ancient Table: The 'Pagoda' Table from Tumulus MM at Gordion

The University Museum excavations at Gordion in central Turkey were begun in 1950 under the direction of Rodney S. Young, […]

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Vol. 26 / No. 1

By: Marilyn Goldberg

Tarquinia Antefixes: A View of the History of an Etruscan City-State

In The University Museum is a collection of architectural fragments from the Etruscan city-state of Tarquinia (Fig. 2), perhaps best […]

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Vol. 26 / No. 1

By: Jordan M. Wright

‘The Highland Show’: Mount Hagen/Goroka, Papua New Guinea

The highland regions of Papua New Guinea were virtually unknown to outsiders until explorations during the 1930s revealed that hundreds […]

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Vol. 26 / No. 1

100 Years of Research: The Approaching Museum Centennial

The University Museum has tried over the years to encourage an awareness of the richness and diversity of human culture, both […]

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Vol. 26 / No. 1

By: Philip P. Betancourt, Mary G. Ciaccio, Brigit Crowell, Jean M. Donohoe and R. Curtis Green

Ceramic Stands: A Group of Domestic and Ritual Objects from Crete and the Near East

Cylindrical stands for pottery were used by several ancient cultures in the eastern Mediter­ranean, but their development among the Minoan […]

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Vol. 26 / No. 1

By: Robert J. Sharer

Alfred P. Maudslay: Pioneer Maya Archaeologist: A Review Article

A century ago the splendid ruins of Maya civilization, first made famous by the travel accounts of John Lloyd Stephens […]

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Vol. 26 / No. 1

By: Erle Leichty, James Muhly, Barbara Murray, Martha Phillips, Jennifer Quick and Bernard Wailes

Geraldine Bruckner: An Appreciation by Past and Present Expedition Staff

Geraldine Bruckner, aged eighty-two and Expedition’s Associate Editor, died on 9 August 1983 after a short illness. It would be […]

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Vol. 26 / No. 2

By: Susan A. Kaplan

Introduction – Winter 1984

Eskimos and North American Indians first came to the attention of Europeans ca. A.D. 1000, when the Norse journeyed to […]

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Vol. 26 / No. 2

By: Mikhail A. Chlenov and Igor I. Krupnik

Whale Alley: A Site on the Chukchi Peninsula, Siberia

In August of 1976, a small group of anthro­pologists led by M. A. Chlenov discovered on the now uninhabited island […]

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Vol. 26 / No. 2

By: Susan A. Kaplan, Richard H. Jordan and Glenn W. Sheehan

An Eskimo Whaling Outfit From Sledge Island, Alaska

In 1912 William B. Van Valin, an elemen­tary school teacher stationed in Sinuk, Alaska, ushered his students aboard the schooner […]

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Vol. 26 / No. 2

By: William W. Fitzhugh

Images From the Past: Thoughts on Bering Sea Art and Eskimo Culture

Nearly fifty years ago Henry B. Collins com­pleted his now-classic study on the last 2000 years of Eskimo prehistory in […]

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Vol. 26 / No. 2

By: Bernadette Driscoll

Sapangat: Inuit Beadwork in the Canadian Arctic

The advent of European exploration introduced the brightly colored glass bead to the Inuit (Eskimo) seamstresses of the Cana­dian Arctic. […]

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Vol. 26 / No. 3

By: Arjun Appadurai

Wells in Western India: Irrigation and Cooperation in an Agricultural Society

Introduction The principal purpose of this paper is to decribe the social arrangement surrounding access to water from open-surface wells […]

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Vol. 26 / No. 3

By: Mario A. Del Chiaro

Etruscan Bird-Askoi: Painted Vases in the Shape of Birds

Vases in the form of animals or birds (askoi; askos, singular) have a remarkably long history in Western and Far […]

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Vol. 26 / No. 3

By: Daniel T. Potts

Northeastern Arabia: From the Seleucids to the Earliest Caliphs

The course of Near Eastern archaeology, as we are seeing very vividly today, is highly sus­ceptible to the winds of […]

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Vol. 26 / No. 3

By: Jay Schwartz, George Brooks and John Herrmann

The Merenptah Palace Project of 1983-84: Museum Briefs

Egypt is famous for its royal tombs and pyramids, but we know surprisingly little about the ceremonial and political activities […]

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Vol. 26 / No. 3

By: Barbara J. Hayden

Late Bronze Age Tylissos: House Plans and Cult Center

Introduction The best-known period of Cretan prehistory is the Minoan Neopalatial or Late Minoan (LM) I period, encompassing approximately one […]

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Vol. 26 / No. 4

By: Bill Donner

Sikaiana: A Contemporary Polynesian Society

Sikaiana is located about 90 miles east of Malaita Island in the Solomon Islands (see Fig. 2). It consists of […]

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Vol. 26 / No. 4

By: Peggy R. Sanday and Suwati Kartiwa

Cloth and Custom in West Sumatra: The Codification of Minangkabau Worldview

One of the prominent Indonesian ethnic groups, the Minangkabau constitute 3% of the entire Indonesian population and one-quarter of the […]

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Vol. 26 / No. 4

By: Peter Just

Houses and House-Building In Donggo

Throughout the islands of Indonesia a house is more than a home. Traditionally, each of the scores of Indonesian ethnic […]

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Vol. 26 / No. 4

University Museum Research Projects – Fall 1984

Silver Reef, Utah—excavation and archival re­search Director, Dr. Robert Schuyler (American Histor­ical Archaeology Section, University Museum) Sponsor, University Museum As […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 1

By: Wang Ningsheng

Rock Paintings in Yunnan, China: Some New Light on the Old Shan Kingdom

The southwestern part of Yunnan Province of China, bordered by Laos and Bur¬ma, is a tropical and mountainous region. Many […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 1

By: Ruben E. Reina

A Maya Teacher: A Day of Fieldwork in the Mountains of Guatemala

Dedicated to the memory of Geral­dine Bruckner. April days in the year 1955 were extremely dry. Thin dust floated over […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 1

University Museum Research Projects – Spring 1985

Rojdi, India—excavation Director: Dr. Gregory Possehl (Asia Section, University Museum) Sponsors: University Museum, Gujarat State Department of Archaeology The third […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 1

By: Jeffrey A. Blakely and James A. Sauer

The Road to Wadi al-Jubah: Archaeology on the Ancient Spice Route in Yemen

The barren sand track leads south from the ancient silt fields of Marib through the sands of the Rub’ al-Khali, […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 1

By: Mary M. Voigt

Village on the Euphrates: Excavations at Neolithic Gritille in Turkey

Along the northern edge of he Mesopotamian lowlands ies a piedmont zone con­sisting of rolling plains with grassy steppe vegetation […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 1

By: David O'Connor

In Memoriam: Rudolf Anthes

Dr. Rudolf Anthes died peacefully on January 5th, 1985. in West Berlin: he was 89 years old. Dr. Anthes was […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 1

By: Callum Thompson

Dorset Shamanism: Excavations in Northern Labrador

Introduction In 1977, a Dorset Eskimo site on Shuldham Island in northern Labrador was found by a biologist intent on examining […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 2

By: Donald White

Roman Athletics: Classical Antecedents to the National Mania

I: Contrasting Attitudes “Modern versus the Antique “In the Michaelmas term after leaving school, Tom Brown received a summons from […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 2

By: Murray C. McClellan

“To Play Properly With A Glass Ball”: An Unusual Object in The University Museum

A curious glass ball (Figs. 1, 3, 4) housed in the Mediterranean Section of The Uni­versity Museum helps us to […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 2

By: Christopher Jones

The Rubber Ball Game: A Universal Mesoamerican Sport

An extremely athletic sport was played by the Aztec, the Maya, and other peo­ples of Prehispanic Mesoamerica, that area of […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 2

By: Marshall Joseph Becker

Lacrosse: Political Organization in North America as Reflected in Athletic Competition

Introduction The increasing popularity of lacrosse on college playing fields and in other schools and clubs throughout North Amer­ica reflects […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 2

By: John L. Cotter

The History of Sporting America: Philadelphia Pastimes

Archaeological traces of sports are often ephem­eral, especially in North America. The Indians left a few ball courts, notably in […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 2

By: David Gilman Romano

Introduction – Fall 1985

One of the most popular aspects of modern western culture is its universal in­terest in sports and athletics. Our world […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 2

By: Ake W. Sjoberb

“Trials of Strength”: Athletics in Mesopotamia

Gilgamesh, the king of Uruk (modern Warka in southern Iraq), was on his way to the place where a couch […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 2

By: David Gilman Romano

Boycotts, Bribes and Fines: The Ancient Olympic Games

The modern Olympic Gaines are now one of the most widely publicized events in the world. In 1984, it was […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 2

By: Karen Brown Vellucci

Etruscan Athletics: Glimpses of an Elusive Civilization

Background The Etruscans represent one of the earliest examples of biased media coverage—a problem originating with the authors of antiquity […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 2

By: Donald White

The Game of Trigon

From Roman Athletics: Classical Antecedents to the National Mania “All at once we saw a bald old man [Trimalchio–Ed.] in […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 3

By: Mary Ellen Miller

Tikal, Guatemala: A Rationale for the Placement of the Funerary Pyramids

For more than a hundred years, the towering pyramids at Tikal, Guatemala, have captured both popular and scholarly fancy. They […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 3

By: Robert J. Sharer

Introduction – Winter 1985

The civilization created by the ancient Maya is recognized throughout the world as one of the most notable achievements of […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 3

By: Robert J. Sharer

Archaeology and Epigraphy Revisited: An Archaeological Enigma and the Origins of Maya Writing

In a previous paper (Sharer in press), I discussed the question of the origins of Maya civiliza­tion and one of […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 3

By: Christopher Jones

Maya Hieroglyphs: A History of the Decipherment

To those familiar with the deci­pherment of Egyptian hiero­glyphs and Babylonian or As­syrian cuneiform, the lack of progress in the […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 3

By: Elin C. Danien

Send Me Mr. Burkitt…Some Whisky and Wine!: Early Archaeology in Central America

At the end of the last century, the pre-Columbian ruins of Mexico and Gua­temala attracted adven­turers and archaeologists whose names […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 3

By: William A. Haviland

Population and Social Dynamics: The Dynasties and Social Structure of Tikal

When dealing with a complex society, whether your own, that of the Maya, or any other, scholars gener­ally adopt one […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 3

By: Chris Ray

Rebuilding the Ruins: Making a Scale Model of the Ancient Maya City of Tikal

On February 1984, Dr. Gregory Possehl (Associate Director of The University Museum) asked me if I could make the Mu­seum […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 3

By: Caroline G. Dosker

Mary Louise Baker and the Maya: From the Archives

An interview in 1908 with Dr. George Byron Gordon, Curator of North American Archaeology at The Uni­versity Museum, began Mary […]

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Vol. 27 / No. 3

By: Jeff Karl Kowalski

Lords of the Northern Maya: Dynastic History in the Inscriptions of Uxmal and Chichen Itza

During the past thirty years significant advances have been made in the inter­pretation of Maya hieroglyphic writing. The glyphic inscriptions, […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 1

By: Graeme Henderson and Ian Crawford

Sampans, Belangs, and Junkos: The Pearling Boats of the Aru Islands

The authors of this article had questions to ask about Indonesian boats and boatbuilding Ian Crawford was interested in early Indonesian […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 1

By: Vimala Begley

Rouletting and Chattering: Decoration on Ancient and Present-Day Pottery in India

As the Periplus of the Erythracau Sea and other Classical accounts tell us, there was a thriving sea trade between […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 1

By: Michael Parrington and Janet Wideman

Acculturation in an Urban Setting: The Archaeology of a Black Philadelphia Cemetery

Archaeologists have traditionally been interested in the excavation of cemeteries, an interest spurred by the rich grave goods found in […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 1

By: Genevieve Fisher

Ill-Understood Relics: A Group of Early Anglo-Saxon Artifacts in The University Museum

It was the labour of four long days to cut entirely through the barrow, but we who were not absolutely […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 1

By: Michael Hitchcock

Basket Makers of the Highlands: The Dou Wawo of Bima, Sumbawa

The varied terrain of the Island of Sumbawa is best appreciated from the air. During the wet monsoon one only […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 1

By: Elisabeth Tooker

Fabrics of the Iroquois: The Lewis H. Morgan Collection for the New York State Museum

In The University Museum are a number of Iroquois manufac­tures collected at various times in various places in New York […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 1

University Museum Research Projects

Sumerian Dictionary Project Director: Dr. Ake W. Sjöberg (Babylonian Section, University Museum) Sponsors: University Museum, National Endowment for the Humanities, […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 1

By: Suzanne Richard

Excavations at Khirbet Iskander, Jordan: A Glimpse at Settled Life during the "Dark Age" in Palestinian Archaeology

The site of Khirbet Iskander lies in central Jordan on the Plateau, just north of the famed biblical Plains of […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 2

By: William Davenport

States, Chiefdoms, and Tribes

In social and cultural anthropology, the term “chieftainship” refers to a form of government in which there are fixed political […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 2

By: Robert J. Braidwood

The Origin and Growth of a Research Focus— Agricultural Beginnings: Introduction

Let us first agree that our concern here is only with what happened in south­western Asia, to its broadest con­ceivable […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 2

By: Andrew Sillen

Dietary Reconstruction and Near Eastern Archaeology

“One farmer says to me, ‘You cannot live on vegetable foods solely, for it furnishes nothing to make bones with’; […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 2

By: Solomon H. Katz and Mary M. Voigt

Bread and Beer: Bread and Beer: The Early Use of Cereals in the Human Diet

This article has an intellectual history that begins with a fascinating exchange in the early 1950s. Robert Braidwood’s field work […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 2

By: Gil Stein

Herding Strategies at Neolithic Gritille: The Use of Animal Bone Remains to Reconstruct Ancient Economic Systems

Introduction The Neolithic period, spanning the 9th through early 5th millennia B.C., was a time of two fundamental and far-reaching […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 2

By: Walter Fairservis, Jr.

Cattle and the Harappan Chiefdoms of the Indus Valley

The Harappan or Indus Val­ley culture is one of the world’s earliest civilizations. It was unknown until the early part […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 2

By: Pam Crabtree

Dairying in Irish Prehistory: The Evidence from a Ceremonial Center

Historical sources indicate that cattle have played a primary role in the Irish economy since the days of St. Patrick. […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 2

By: Peter Bogucki

The Antiquity of Dairying in Temperate Europe

The Problem The antiquity of dairying is a problem which has received scant archaeological attention, yet one which is crucial […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 2

By: Charles A. Reed

Wild Animals Ain’t So Wild, Domesticating Them Not So Difficult

Articles on origins of domestication of animals are always written by humans for other humans, usually based in large part […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 3

By: Adria Holmes Katz

The Gilbert Islands

The Gilbert Islands are sixteen coral atolls in that part of the Pacific known as Micronesia (the region of “small […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 3

By: Stuart Fleming

The Mummies of Pachacamac: An Exceptional Legacy from Uhle's 1896 Excavations

While, in the wake of Johann Winkelmaun’s appraisal of the Greek contribution to art and of the scholarship stimulated by […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 3

By: Elizabeth Lyons

Ming Huang’s Journey to Shu: The History of a Painting

During its five-hundred-year history, this painting has been admired, looted, rescued, honored, forgotten, found and restored to esteem. Hanging on […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 3

By: Richard L. Zettler

From Beneath The Temple: Inscribed Objects From Ur

Perhaps the most widely known of the objects in The Univer­sity Museum’s Near Eastern collection are those from Tell al-Mugaiyar, […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 3

By: Donald White

The Morris Coin: A Masterpiece by Euaenetus

“Somewhere in the misty field if the seas / where Ortygia lies by Thrinakria / Apheiis’s bubbling miuth intermingles / […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 3

By: Bien D. Chiang

Paiwan Qeluz: A Carved Slate Pillar from Taiwan

Standing outside in the Sharpe Circle of The University Museum is a 9- foot slate pillar from the Paiwan peoples […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 3

By: Adria Holmes Katz

Corselets of Fiber: Robert Louis Stevenson's Gilbertese Armor

In November 1914 and January 1915 the Anderson Auction Com­pany of New York offered for sale a collection of letters, […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 3

By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

Introduction – Winter 1986

For many people, a museum is a place where interesting “things” can be accumulat­cd. displayed, and stored. In the case […]

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Vol. 28 / No. 3

By: Christopher Jones

A Ruler in Triumph: Chocolá Monument 1

At times the lack of a pub­lished line drawing will pre­vent an exquisite piece of sculpture from receiving the atten­tion […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 1

By: Alan Mann and Janet Monge

Technology of Casting

Making a Mold A mold of most fossil bones is made of two or more parts. When the design of […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 1

By: Salah Hassan

The Adrim or “Virginity Disc”: Marking the Passage to Womanhood in Siwah

In 1985 a handsome necklace from the Oasis of Siwah in the Western Desert of Egypt was donated to The […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 1

By: Stephen Epstein

The Sanusi

The Sanusi order, founded by Muhammad Ibn al-Sanusi (ca. 1787-1859), is part of the Sunni or orthodox branch of Islam. […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 1

By: Steven M. Albert

Tubuan: Masks and Men in Southern New Ireland, Papua New Guinea

Two rather obscure axes in The University Museum’s Melanesian collection (Figs. 1, 2) reveal interesting facets of a secret male […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 1

By: David O'Connor

The Earliest Pharaohs and the University Museum: Old and New Excavations: 1900-1987

Although the detailed discus­sion of a significant ancient art work or archaeological artifact can in itself be a fascinating exercise, […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 1

By: William D. Glanzman

Etruscan and South Italian Bird-Askoli: A Technological View

The pottery vessels of Classical antiquity represent some of the finest ever produced in the Old World. They come in […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 1

By: Jeanny Vorys Canby

A Monumental Puzzle: Reconstructing the Ur-Nammu Stela

The puzzle began with bits and pieces of limestone found in the 1920s at ancient Ur. Now part of the […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 1

By: Richard Zettler

The Empire of Ur-Nammu under His Descendants

Ur-Nammu established an independent state centered on Ur in 2112 B.C. After Ur-Nammu’s death, his son Shulgi expanded the territorial […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 1

The Worn “Back” Face: Isolated Scenes

In the new reconstruction, the top register shows the king in a common position of adoration, with one hand raised […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 1

By: Elisabeth Tooker

Frank G. Speck

Frank G. Speck In 1951, A. Irving Hallowell wrote an obituary of Frank Speck in Amer­ican Anthropologist. Following are excerpts […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 1

By: Elisabeth Tooker

The “Speck Iroquois Collection” in The University Museum

Among the objects of Iroquois manufacture in The Univer­sity Museum are a number collected by Frank G. Speck, some given […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 1

By: Alan Mann and Janet Monge

Reproducing Our Ancestors: The University Museum's Casting Program

A hundred and thirty-one years ago, quarry workers in the Neander Valley (“Tal” in German) came across the mineralized remains […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 2

By: Stephen M. Epstein

“Scholars Will Call it Nonsense”: The Structure of Erich von Däniken's Argument

In 1968 an obscure Swiss hotel manager published a book entitled Erinnerungen an die Zukunft. An English edition appeared under […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 2

By: Philip G. Chase

The Cult of the Cave Bear: Prehistoric Rite or Scientific Myth?

Many of the myths that plague archaeologists come from outside the profession, the product of overly imaginative minds untrained in […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 2

By: Bryce Little

The Misusable Past: Facts and Fantasies in North American Archaeology

Two of the most memorable incidents of my career in anthropology concern unusual visitors to my office. The first appeared […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 2

By: Bryce Little

A New North American Fantasy

Archaeological misidentifications and outright frauds have been relatively common within North America during the past 100 years. The story of […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 2

By: Bryce Little

Adventures on the Eastern Frontier

James Adair was born in county Antrim, Ireland, around 1709, and immigrated to South Carolina in 1735. He initially traded […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 2

By: Marilyn P. Beaudry, J. Mark Kenoyer and Rita P. Wright

Traditional Potters of India: Ethnoarchaeological Observations in America

We stood on a hillside surveying the landscape for just the “right spot.” M. Palaniappan preferred the low, more level […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 2

By: Janice B. Klein

The Life and Times of King Arthur

Arthur has been depicted in many ways. He is most commonly seen as the high Medieval king of 13th, 14th, […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 2

By: David Silverman

The Curse of the Curse of the Pharaohs

“Cursed be those that disturb the rest of Pharaoh. They that shall break the seal of this tomb shall meet […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 2

By: David Silverman

Some Non-Royal Curses

Most genuine Egyptian curses take a particular form, and, once established, the pattern remains intact. Those placed on private tombs […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 2

By: Brian Fagan

Archaeology and Pseudo-Archaeology

This issue of Expedition grew out of a symposium held at The University Museum on October 5, 1985, entitled “Archaeology: […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 2

By: Nicholas Hartmann

Atlantis Lost and Found: The Ancient Aegean from Politics to Volcanoes

In addressing the topic of “Atlantis”, which over the years has become a catch-all term for a number of wildly […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 2

By: Brian Fagan

Madame Blavatsky and Theosophy

One of the more popular recent reincarnations of the legend of Atlantis took place in the United States. During the […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 2

By: Nicholas Hartmann

The Fallout from the Thera Eruption

The effects of the Thera eruption on the island itself were devastating. Estimates of the amount of volcanic material (tephra) […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 2

By: James D. Muhly

Solomon, the Copper King: A Twentieth Century Myth

King Solomon is one of those biblical figures known to almost everyone, regardless of religious persuasion or degree of spiritual […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 2

King Solomon in History and Myth

The career of Solomon, King of Israel, is known primarily through biblical references and traditions. The historical reality behind specific […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 3

By: Ward Goodenough and Stephen D. Thomas

Traditional Navigation in the Western Pacific: A Search for a Pattern

Do people learn and mentally organize their experience in similar ways in spite of differences in their cultures and in […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 3

By: David Conwell

On Ostrich Eggs and Libyans: Traces of a Bronze Age People from Bates' Island, Egypt

(The Libyans] schemed to plot rebellion a second time, to finish their lifetime on the frontier of Egypt. They gathered […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 3

By: David Conwell

Ostrich Eggs

The exotic and easily recognized ostrich egg is found surprisingly often by archaeologists working all around the Mediterranean. Evidence for […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 3

By: David O'Connor

Egyptians and Libyans in the New Kingdom: An Interpretation

For Classical authors such as Herodotus (ca. 450 B.C.), all the various independent people inhabiting the huge land mass extending […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 3

By: Lee Horne

Artisans and Archaeologists: A Special Section on the Study of Crafts in India

Observing a skilled artisan at work brings to the viewer an understanding that is bath aesthetic and intellectual, and that […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 3

By: Lee Horne

The Brasscasters of Dariapur, West Bengal: Artisans in a Changing World

In the spring of 1988, Sri Haradhan Karmakar (Figs. 1,2), a brasscaster from West Bengal, came to Philadelphia to participate […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 3

By: Lee Horne

Brasscasting in Dariapur

The following description briefly outlines the stages of dhokra brass-casting as carried out by Dariapuri artisans today. Variations in materials […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 3

By: Rita P. Wright

Traditional Potters of India: Ethnoarchaeological Observations in America

We Stood on a hillside surveying the landscape for just the “right spot”. M. Palaniappan preferred the low, more level […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 3

By: Chandra L. Reedy

Modern Statues and Traditional Methods: A Casting Workshop in Chamba, Himachal Pradesh, Northwest India

Northwest India is renowned among art historians for the Buddhist and Hindu copper alloy statues produced there during the medieval […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 1

By: William H. Davenport and Adria Katz

Opening Statement

The opening of the exhibition “The Dayaks: Peoples of the Borneo Rainforest” marks the inauguration of The University Museum’s new […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 1

By: William H. Davenport

Borneo: Introduction

This issue of Expedition contains articles that focus on the island of Borneo and its peoples. It is being published […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 1

By: Adria H. Katz

Borneo to Philadelphia: The Furness-Hiller-Harrison Collections

In the years 1895-1903 William H. Furness 3rd, Hiram M. Hiller and Alfred C. Harrison, Jr., (Fig. 1) traveled extensively […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 1

By: Lucas Chin

Trade Objects: Their Impact on the Cultures of the Indigenous Peoples of Sarawak, Borneo

There are strong archaeological indications that the island of Borneo had begun to draw foreign traders and merchants to its […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 1

By: Herbert L. Whittier and Patricia R. Whittier

Baby Carriers: A Link Between Social and Spiritual Values Among the Kenyah Dayak of Borneo

At first glance, the baby carrier (ba’) used by the Kenyah Dayak of central Borneo appears to be simply a […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 1

By: Donald E. Brown

Tribe-Sulanate Relationships: Traditional Patterns of Rule in Brunei

An Overview The Late 19th century was a period of momentous change in Borneo. Dutch influence—spinning off from Holland’s control […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 1

By: Christine Padoch

Agriculture in Interior Borneo: Shifting Cultivation and Alternatives

Flying over the island of Borneo ( or Kalimantan as it is known to Indonesians), one feature of the landscape […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 1

By: Richard Allen Drake

Ibanic Textile Weaving: Its Enchantment in Social and Religious Practices

The weaving of attractive textiles is one of the freatures that distinguishes the Iabanic peoples of Borneo from neighboring Dayak […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 1

Selections From the Exhibition: "The Dayaks: Peoples of the Borneo Rainforest" February 25, 1989, to June 3, 1990

The Objects pictured in the following pages have been selected from several hundred pieces hat are on display in the […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 1

By: Timothy C. Jussup and Andrew P. Vayda

Dayaks and Forests of Interior Borneo

Borneo, largest of the Greater Sunda Islands in the Indonesian archipelago (Fig. 2a,b) and the largest island in the world […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 2

By: Robert L. Schuyler

Silver Reef Project: Creation of a ‘Historic Ethnography’ for a 19th Century American Mining Town on the Western Frontier: University Museum Research Projects

Since 1981 the American Historical Archaeology Section of The University Museum has been running a project that alternates between digging […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 2

By: Bonita Freeman-Witthof

Formal Games in the Cherokee Ritual Cycle

The Scientific Study of Games The formal games of western civilization have intrigued generations of scholars (see Expedition Vol. 27, […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 2

By: Ruben E. Reina

The Sacred World of the Maya: Costumbre and Religion in Guatelmala

Dedicated to my friend and former student, Edwin C. Buxbaum Nothing is more real than the real; and that is […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 2

By: Ralph M. Rowlett

Titelberg: A Celtic Hillfort in Luxembourg

In southwestern Luxembourg, near the border where Luxem­bourg, Belgium, and France come together, the site called Titel­berg sits astride a […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 2

By: Kyle M. Phillips and Ann H. Ashmead

Undoing the Past: Changing Attitudes Towards the Restoration of Greek Pots

When we first started work­ing on the publication of The University Museum’s Attic red-figure pottery for the Cor­pus Vasorum Antiquorum, […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 2

By: Karen Polinger Foster

Snakes and Lions: A New Reading of the West House Frescoes from Thera

In the Aegean Bronze Age, palaces and some private houses were richly decorated by murals depicting people, animals, and landscape […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 2

By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

Where in the World?

Many people interested in The Univer­sity Museum ask from time to time about our research activities. To respond to these […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 2

By: Himanshu P. Ray

Early Buddhist Caves of the Western Deccan: Indian Long-Distance Trade in the Early Centuries A.D.

Located along the western coast of India are a series of caves, some of them richly decorated, that were cut […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 2

By: Stephen P. Koob

The Conservation and Restoration of Red-figure Stamnos No. 48-30-3

The conservation and restoration of the red-figure stamnos 48-30-3 (University Museum collection) was undertaken with a view to returning the […]

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Vol. 29 / No. 3

By: A. John Gwinnett and Leonard Gorelick

The Change from Stone Drills to Copper Drills in Mesopotamia: An Experimental Perspective

An important craft in ancient Mesopotamia was that of the lapidary—the maker of stone beads, amulets, figurines, small vessels and […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 3

By: Susan A. Niles

Looking for ‘Lost’ Inca Palaces

The Incas, at the time of the Spanish Conquest in 1532, occupied the largest of the native Precolumbian states, with […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 3

By: Catherine J. Julien

The Squier Causeway at Lake Umayo: Notes on Ancient Travel in the Northern Lake Titicaca Basin

When Ephraim George Squier embarked on his exploration of highland Peru and Bolivia in 1864-65, he rode on muleback across […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 3

By: Denise Carlevato

Late Ceramics from Pucara, Peru: An Indicator of Changing Site Function

In the southern reaches of the Peruvian Andes lies a high, spacious plateau within the northern Lake Titicaca Basin (see […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 3

By: Sergio J. Chavez

Archaeological Reconnaissance in the Province of Chumbivilcas, South Highland Peru

Despite its close proximity to the city of Cuzco, once the capital of the vast Inca empire, the Province of […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 3

By: Karen L. Mohr Chavez

The Significance of Chiripa in Lake Titicaca Basin Developments

Them site of Chiripa is located in Bolivia on the southern shore of Lake Titicaca. A series of structures revealed […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 3

By: Clark L. Erickson

Raised Field Agriculture in the Lake Titicaca Basin: Putting Ancient Agriculture Back to Work

The remains of an extensive ancient agricultural system built and used by Andean peoples centuries ago are found throughout the […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 3

By: Karen L. Mohr Chavez

Alfred Kidder II: 1911-1984

Alfred Kidder II (called Alf, Alfie, Ted, or Teddy by family, friends, and col­leagues) was born on August 2, 1911, […]

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Vol. 30 / No. 3

By: Karen L. Mohr Chavez

About This Issue

This special issue of Expedition is pub­lished in honor of Dr. Alfred Kidder II ( 1911- 1984 ), former Curator […]

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Vol. 31 / No. 1

By: John Monaghan

The Feathered Serpent in Oaxaca: An Approach to the Study of the Mixteca Codices

The Mixteca region of the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Puebla, and Guerrero is the home of one of the largest […]

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Vol. 31 / No. 1

By: Ward H. Goodenough

The Trukese-English Dictionary: Recording a Language on the Computer

The creation of a dictionary often strikes people as an extraordinary undertaking, although it is more of a common­place at […]

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Vol. 31 / No. 1

By: Simon Holdaway and Susan A. Johnston

Upper Paleolithic Notation Systems in Prehistoric Europe

The search for an indigenous writing system among the prehistoric cultures of Tem­perate Europe has a long history which may […]

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Vol. 31 / No. 1

By: Ezat O. Negahban

Persian Calligraphy: The Development of an Art Form

Iran is one of many cultures in which the written word has been transformed into an art form, an extension […]

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Vol. 31 / No. 1

By: Lynn E. Roller

The Art of Writing at Gordion

The impetus to record a previously unwritten language must be powerful, since it requires adaptation to a new kind of […]

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Vol. 31 / No. 1

By: Cheng-mei Chang

Chinese Writing: A System of Characters Rich in Structural Diversity

Chinese writing is a system primarily intelligible to the eyes rather than to the ears. Each written character can be […]

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Vol. 31 / No. 1

By: John Winter

Chinese Ink

Leaving aside such cases as inscriptions incised in stone or cast in bronze, almost all traditional writing in China, as […]

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Vol. 31 / No. 2-3

By: Vincent C. Pigott

The Emergence of Iron Use at Hasanlu

Artifacts of iron constitute one of the single largest classes excavated at Hasan­lu. More than 2000 individual iron objects were […]

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Vol. 31 / No. 2-3

By: David S. Reese

Treasures from the Sea: Shells and Shell Ornaments from Hasanlu IVB

Shell is one of the most durable materials in the archaeologi­cal record. Shells and shell­fish have been used by man […]

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Vol. 31 / No. 2-3

By: Mary Virginia Harris

Glimpses of an Iron Age Landscape: Plants at Hasanlu

On an August evening in 1970 A.D., standing on the top of Hasanlu Tepe, I could see the headlights of […]

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Vol. 31 / No. 2-3

By: Irene J. Winter

The ‘Hasanlu Gold Bowl’: Thirty Years Later

Just over 30 years ago, the extraordinary vessel known as the “Hasanlu Gold Bowl” was discovered in the debris of […]

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Vol. 31 / No. 2-3

By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

The Iron Age Architecture at Hasanlu: An Essay

One of the most important results of the excavation of Iron Age Hasanlu is the recovery of well-preserved archi­tectural remains […]

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Vol. 31 / No. 2-3

By: Oscar W. Muscarella

Warfare at Hasanlu in the Late 9th Century B.C.

Warfare in the ancient Near East is abundantly docu­mented by written and archaeological evidence. The use of force to settle […]

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Vol. 31 / No. 2-3

By: Maude de Schauensee

Horse Gear from Hasanlu

The largest collection of con­temporaneous, archaeologi­cally documented horse para­phernalia in the Near East comes from the ruins of the town […]

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Vol. 31 / No. 2-3

By: Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

Rediscovering Hasanlu

The unexpected discovery in 1958 of the now famous “Hasalu Gold Bowl” in a burned occupation level at that site led […]

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Vol. 31 / No. 2-3

By: Michelle I. Marcus

Emblems of Authority: The Seals and Sealings from Hasanlu IVB

In the ancient Near East, small stamps and cylinders with carved or molded designs were used as emblems of status […]

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Vol. 31 / No. 2-3

By: Tammi J. Schneider

Assyrian Texts: The Inscriptions of Assurnasirpal II and His Son

The existence of written re­cords at a site is viewed with great joy because texts impart information that cannot be […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 1

By: Patrick E. McGovern

The Ultimate Attire: Jewelry from a Canaanite Temple at Beth Shan

Tells el-Husn, ancient Beth Shari, was the first site to be excavated by The Univer­sity Museum in what is today […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 1

By: Nancy Micklewright

Looking at the Past: Nineteenth Century Images of Constantinople as Historic Documents

Unlace events in more re­mote periods (the Bronze Age, Classical Antiquity, or even the Renaissance), the events and people of […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 1

By: Ben Burt

Kwara’ae Costume Ornaments: A Solomon Islands Art Form

One of the things that im­pressed early European visitors to Solomon Islands was the way the people dressed themselves in […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 1

By: Lorraine V. Aragon

Barkcloth Production in Central Sulawesi: A Vanishing Textile Technology in Outer Island Indonesia

Before the invention or adop­tion of woven textiles, bark-cloth was used to clothe the human body in many, if not […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 1

By: Karen S. Rubinson

The Textiles from Pazyryk: A Study in the Transfer and Transformation of Artisitc Motifs

Winters are cold and sum­mers brief at the site of Pazyryk in the Altai Moun­tains of Siberia. Here, in a […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 2

By: Steve Ford, Mark Bowden, Vince Gaffney and Geoff Mees

Dating Ancient Field Systems on the Berkshire Downs in England

Undisturbed by modern plow­ing, the remains of ancient fields are still common on the chalk downlands of southern England. Where […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 2

By: Kathryn L. Gleason

Gardens and Landscapes of the Past: Introduction

In the past few years, the results of over two decades of research in the new discipline of landscape archae­ology […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 2

About the Authors

Kathryn L. Gleason is Assistant Professor of Landscape Architecture at the Graduate School of Fine Arts, University of Pennsylvania. She holds […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 2

By: Lydia Mihelic Pulsipher

They Have Saturdays and Sundays to Feed Themselves: Slave Gardens in the Caribbean

They have Saturdays in the Afternoon, and Sundays, with Christmas Holidays, Easter call’d little or Piganinny Christmas, and some other […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 2

By: Kathryn L. Gleason

The Garden Portico of Pompey the Great: An Ancient Public Park Preserved in the Layers of Rome

Rome is thought of as a city for walking. In the coolness of a summer evening, Romans and visitors alike […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 2

By: Naomi F. Miller

Palm Trees in Paradise: Victorian Views of the Ancient Near East Landscape

The significant origin stories of Western civilization take place in the ancient Near East, a fact that provoked interest in […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 2

By: Anne Yentsch

Historic Morven: The Archaeological Reappearance of an 18th Century Princeton Garden

The Family, the House, the Gardens Ink the late 17th century the first Stockton family moved to Princeton, and in […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 2

By: Lynn Grant

Southwest Pottery Artifacts on Tour: A Report from Conservation

Southwest Pottery Artifacts on Tour: A Report from Conservation The University Museum has had an active program of loaning artifacts […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 2

By: Gail E. Wagner

Charcoal, Isotopes, and Shell Hoes: Reconstructing a 12th Century Native American Garden

Corn-based agriculture was established among the Fort Ancient Indians in the cen­tral Ohio River valley by the 11th century A.D. […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 3

By: J. Wilson Myers and Eleanor Emlen Myers

Low-Altitude Aerial Photography in Crete

As early as 1930, at the fortress tell of Megiddo, the biblical Armageddon, vertical bal­loon photographs were used to help […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 3

By: Harriet Blitzer

Pastoral Life in the Mountains of Crete: An Ethnoarchaeological Perspective

Archaeological research in Crete has always maintained a tenuous and sometimes contrary bond with evidence of traditional human activity in […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 3

By: Barbara J. Hayden and Jennifer A. Moody

The Vrokastro Survey Project: Providing a Context for an Early Iron Age Site

Of the most dramatic coastlines in Europe is lo­cated along the northern shores of eastern Crete, where sea-weathered rock formations, […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 3

By: Barbara J. Hayden, Jennifer A. Moody and Polymnia Muhly

Introduction – Winter 1990

Generations of historians, archae­ologists, anthropologists, and scien­tists have chosen Crete as the focus of their research. A combination of factors […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 3

By: Joseph W. Shaw

North American Archaeological Work in Crete, 1880 to 1990

The First Phase of Research The island of Crete with its rich Minoan and Classical civilization has been the field […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 3

By: Philip P. Betancourt

The Stone Vessels of Pseira

“Never…have I seen so many stone vases in so short a time.” Richard Seager, letter to Edith Hall from Pseira, […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 3

By: Polymnia Muhly

The Great Goddess and the Priest-King: Minoan Religion in Flux

The discussion of practically every aspect of Minoan civili­zation begins with the work of Sir Arthur Evans, who, almost half […]

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Vol. 32 / No. 3

By: Geraldine C. Gesell, Leslie Preston Day and William D.E. Coulson

Tombs and Burial Practices in Early Iron Age Crete

Tombs and graves have always been of particular interest to archaeologists for the informa­tion they provide about the people buried […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 1

By: Lewis R. Binford

A Corporate Caribou Hunt: Documenting the Archaeology of Past Lifeways

In seeking to understand the archaeological record, one of the most important conditioners of how well we infer a past […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 1

By: Lee Horne

Reading Village Plans: Architecture and Social Change in Northeastern Iran

Architecture plays multiple roles in people’s lives. Dwel­lings reflect not only how people live, but also how they think about […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 1

By: Warren R. DeBoer and John H. Blitz

Ceremonial Centers of the Chachi

It would seem that archaeologists are forever talking about cere­monial centers, places where people do not reside permanently but where they […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 1

By: Lee Horne

What is Ethnoarchaeology?: Introduction

In the traditional academic division of labor, ethno­graphers study the present, archaeologists study the past. Both aim to understand and […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 1

By: William A. Longacre, James M. Skibo and Miriam T. Stark

Ethnoarchaeology at the Top of the World: New Ceramic Studies Among the Kalinga of Luzon

I. History of the Project The Kalinga are a tribal society inhabiting the high mountains of Luzon in the northern […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 1

By: Glenn Davis Stone

Settlement Ethnoarchaeology: Changing Patterns Among the Kofyar of Nigeria

Archaeology consists of both reconstructing what  happened and explaining it happened. archaeological has always been conducted with an eye towards […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 1

By: Nan A. Rothschild

Incorporating the Outdoors as Living Space: Ethnoarchaeology at Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico

People’s houses both define and are defined by their lives. The material and permanence of houses are related to the […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 2

By: Victoria Lindsay Levine

Feathers in Southeast American Indian Ceremonialism

On May 18, 1539, the Span­iard Hernando de Soto em­barked on an expedition to explore what is now the southeastern […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 2

By: Albert H. Schroeder

Early Accounts of Birds and Feathers Used by the Southwest Indians

Interpretation of prehistory is basically dependent upon ma­terial culture items recovered in association with features of different time periods and/or […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 2

By: Donald N. Brown

Indians, Feathers, and the Law in Western Oklahoma

In April of 1974, just as the summer powwow dancing season was beginning, twenty-eight residents of central and western Oklahoma, […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 2

Sacred Protection: Shields of the Plains and Southwest in The University Museum's Collections

In his article, Hall introduces the shield with a brief history of its use: “The round shield or target is […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 2

By: Marianne L. Stoller

Birds, Feathers, and Hopi Ceremonialism

“When we plant corn we place seven or eight seeds in each hole. Of course, we don’t need to grow […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 2

By: Robert J. Sharer, Loa P. Traxler and Julia C. Miller

The Copan Corte: A Window on the Architectural History of a Maya City: Reports from the Field

Sylvanus G. Morley referred to the river cut through the Acro­polis at Copan, Honduras, as “the largest archaeological cross-section in […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 2

By: Lucy Fowler Williams

The Calusa Indians: Maritime Peoples of Florida in the Age of Columbus: Behind the Scenes

The University Museum has an exceptional collection of artifacts from the Calusa site at Key Marco, Florida. The pelican, wolf, […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 3

By: Seetha N. Reddy

On the Banks of the River: Opportunistic Cultivation in South India

From time immemorial river floodplains have been an attractive environment for human exploitation, particularly through agriculture and pastoralism. Well-known examples, […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 3

By: William H. Isbell

Honcopampa: Monumental Ruins in Peru's North Highlands

More than three thousand years ago, a great tradition of stone sculpture and mega­lithic architecture emerged in Peru’s north highland […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 3

By: Kenneth M. Kensinger

A Body of Knowledge, or, the Body Knows

It was only a brief comment from a father to his young son but it launched me on one of […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 3

By: Eric H. Cline and Martin J. Cline

‘Of Shoes and Ships and Sealing Wax’: International Trade and the Late Bronze Age Aegean

Lewis Carroll, author of Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass, was no stranger to classical antiquity. It is, […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 3

By: Robert S. O. Harding

Capuchins, Capybaras, and Cattle: Reports from the Field

Many Museum members are familiar with the popular “Reports from the Field” lecture program. In an effort to expand the […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 3

Reflections of a Digger

Froehlich Rainey served as Director of The University Museum from 1947 to 1976. During those years he helped to make […]

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Vol. 33 / No. 3

By: David O'Connor

Boat Graves and Pyramid Origins: New Discoveries at Abydos, Egypt

The study of ancient Egypt revolves around a number of questions about major aspects of Egyptian culture, questions not yet […]

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Vol. 34 / No. 1-2

By: Gerald P. Schaus

Pottery from the Sanctuary: A Question of Function

The Sanctuary of Demeter was filled with dedications, spe­cial gifts offered by wor­shipers, likely with the thought that a pact […]

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Vol. 34 / No. 1-2

By: Donald White

Illustrations by the Early Travelers: An Appreciation of a Lost Art

The following 15 North African coastal scenes were executed by four artist-explorers between roughly 1820 and 1865. The geographic region […]

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Vol. 34 / No. 1-2

By: Donald White

Preface: Excavations at The Extramural Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone at Cyrene, 1969-1981

Ceres, thou most bounteous lady, thy rich leas Of wheat, rye, barley, vetches, oats, and pease; Thy turf y mountains, where live […]

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Vol. 34 / No. 1-2

By: P. Gregory Warden

Gift, Offering, and Reciprocity: Personalized Remembrance and the 'Small Finds'

Small finds are the “grab bag” of archaeology; in this category are all the portable objects—explainable and unexplainable—found on sites. […]

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Vol. 34 / No. 1-2

By: T. V. Buttrey

The Coins and the Cult

For centuries the Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone at Cyrene attracted the atten­dance of the faithful, whose dedica­tions included coined […]

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Vol. 34 / No. 1-2

By: Susan Kane

Kore’s Return: Statuary from the Sanctuary

The Thesmophoria are a Greek festival containing mys­teries…They are celebrated, according to the more mythical account, because when Kore was […]

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Vol. 34 / No. 1-2

By: Donald White

The Sanctuary’s History and Architecture

Archaeologists know from ex­perience that Demeter sanctuaries can be counted on to warehouse large quantities of ob­jects. The worship of […]

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Vol. 34 / No. 1-2

By: Jaimee P. Uhlenbrock

History, Trade, and the Terracottas

Over 4,500 terracotta figurines spanning some 800 years, from the 7th century B.C. to the 1st century of the Christian […]

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Vol. 34 / No. 1-2

By: Donald White

Statue Breakers and Spirit Exorcists: The Earthquake Destruction and Its Aftereffects

The Sanctuary’s later days are marred by acts of violence that form a disturbing con­trast with its apparently tranquil preceding […]

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Vol. 34 / No. 1-2

By: Janet Monge

Victims of the Quake

An almost complete absence of human remains trapped in the destruction level of the Sanctuary argues that effectively nothing in […]

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Vol. 34 / No. 3

By: Randall White

The Earliest Images: Ice Age 'Art' in Europe

The term “Ice Age art” usually evokes images of painted caves. However, by the time the first cave was painted […]

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Vol. 34 / No. 3

By: Philip G. Chase

Introduction – Winter 1992

Ice Age archaeology has a special fascination, for it was during this time that our ancestors became fully human, both […]

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Vol. 34 / No. 3

By: Philip G. Chase

What Were the Ice Ages?

Humans, or at least the first members of our biological family, first arrived in Eu­rope at least 500,000 years ago. […]

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Vol. 34 / No. 3

By: Harold L. Dibble

Paleolithic Archaeology: The Search for our Human Heritage

The Paleolithic, or “Old Stone Age,” is a fascinating period of prehistory for anyone interest­ed in human origins and evolution. […]

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Vol. 34 / No. 3

By: Philip G. Chase

Language in the Ice Ages: When Did Europeans First Speak?

Using language is part of being human, and of all living species, we alone possess this ability. It is crucial […]

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Vol. 34 / No. 3

By: Nancy Minugh-Purvis

The Inhabitants of Ice Age Europe

Early European Origins The first inhabitants of Europe were not native to the region. Some 5 to 6 million years […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 1

By: Christian E. Downum

Southwestern Archaeology: Past, Present, and Future

When the U.S. ended its war with Mexico, it gained a vast new western territory that included most of the […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 1

By: Eric Blinman

Anasazi Pottery: Evolution of a Technology

Pottery is ubiquitous on Anasazi archaeological sites (Figs. 1 and 2), and it is both one of the aesthetic joys […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 1

By: Glen Rice and Charles Redman

Platform Mounds of the Arizona Desert: An Experiment in Organizational Complexity

In the fall of 1989 we began an eight-year project to investigate platform mound communities in the Tonto Basin of […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 1

By: Catherine M. Cameron

Photographic Analysis: A Study of Architectural Change at Oraibi Pueblo

The multistoried pueblos of the Southwest appear ancient, time-less, and unchanging. Most of these villages have been occupied for over […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 1

By: Paul Minnis and Michael Whalen

Casas Grandes: Archaeology in Northern Mexico

“the great difficulty being in determining where the remains of these people [of Cases Grander] ceased, and those of ruder […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 1

By: Stephen H. Lekson

Chaco, Hohokam and Mimbres: The Southwest in the 11th and 12th Centuries

Caesar’s Gaul, the Southwest of the 11th and 12th centuries was divided into three parts (Fig. 2): Anasazi (on the […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 1

By: Catherine M. Cameron

Recent Research in the Prehistoric Southwest: Introduction

The Southwest has been long been renowned for its spectacular archaeological sites and for the contemporary Native American groups whose […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 2

By: Samia B. Dafa'alla

Art and Industry: The Achievements of Meroe

The empire of Meroe flourished along the Sudanic Nile valley from approximately 300 B.C. to A.D. 350. Although successors to […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 2

By: John Alexander

Beyond the Nile: The Influence of Egypt and Nubia in Sub-Saharan Africa

A number of developments in human affairs seem to have taken place earlier in the Nile Valley—especially in Egypt—than in […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 2

By: William Y. Adams

Medieval Nubia: Another Golden Age

It is no easy task to review the history of Nubia from A.D. 400 to 1500 in a few pages, […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 2

Nubia: An Ancient African Civilization: Introduction

Ancient Nubia occupied a vast region just south of ancient Egypt, a region lying partly in Egypt but mostly in […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 2

By: David O'Connor

Chiefs or Kings?: Rethinking Early Nubian Politics

Egypt and Nubia—immediately upstream of Egypt developed the two earliest known of Africa’s many civilizations. Yet Nubia is not found on modern […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 2

By: Frank M. Snowden, Jr.

Images and Attitudes: Ancient Views of Nubia and the Nubians

Ancient Nubia was clearly perceived by its contemporaries as an independent country, rich in coveted resources and inhabited by dark […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 2

Karanog, Wealthy Capital of a Lower Nubian Province: Behind the Scenes

Karanog, a provincial capital of the Meroitic kingdom during the 2nd centuries A.D., provides our richest glimpse into a culture […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 3

By: Barbara H. Roll

Pere Village

Pere is the home of the largest and most powerful clan on the south coast of Manus. In 1928 it […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 3

By: Kris L. Hardin

Representing Africa: Whose Story Counts?

Photographs have long been an important tool of cultural anthropologists. A quick survey of the anthropological literature shows visual images being […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 3

By: Eleanor M. King

Fieldwork in Brazil: Petrullo's Visit to the Yawalapiti

Preface Matto Grosso was tirst entered, by way of the Paraguay river, in the latter part of the sixteenth century […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 3

By: Vincenzo Petrullo

‘Among Friends’: Excerpt from Uni, an Unpublished Manuscript

As the narrative begins, we find Petrullo and his compan­ion, Arthur Rossi, encamped on. the bank of the Kuluene River. […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 3

By: Lee Horne

Return to Caracol: Behind the Scenes

In September of 1951. The University Museum received a 20­ton shipment of limestone monuments. most of them in frag­ments, from […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 3

By: Loa P. Traxler

A New Discovery at Copan: Reports from the Field

In the spring of 1992, University Museum excavators of the ancient Maya city of Copan made the remarkable discovery of […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 3

By: Lee Horne

Focus on Fieldwork: Introduction

This issue of Expedition focuses on five very different kinds of fieldwork projects. All are connected in one way or another […]

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Vol. 35 / No. 3

By: Barbara H. Roll

Loving a Village

In 1928 the newly married young anthropologists Margaret Mead and Reo Fortune lived for six months in a village called […]

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Vol. 36 / No. 1

By: Duffie Westheimer

The Annual MNA Indian Art Exhibitions

In 1984 I was sorting piles of Navajo rugs for the Museum of Northern Arizona’s Navajo Artists Exhibition. I think […]

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Vol. 36 / No. 1

By: Tessie Naranjo

Pottery Making in a Changing World: Santa Clara Pueblo

About 10 miles from my home in Santa Clara Pueblo, is Puce, the home of my ancestors. Puce sits on […]

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Vol. 36 / No. 1

Pueblo Pottery in the Collections of the University of Pennsylvania Museum

The University of Pennsylvania’s holdings include some 3500 pieces of Anasazi and Pueblo pottery, collected primarily in the 19th centaur. […]

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Vol. 36 / No. 1

By: Jeremy A. Sabloff

Musings and Visions from the Director’s Desk – Spring 1994

It is a great privilege and honor for me to be the eleventh Director and the second Charles K. Williams […]

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Vol. 36 / No. 1

By: Lee Horne

Introduction – Spring 1994

This special Expedition on Native Fairs and Markets of the Southwest takes issues of tradition and innovation, preservation and change, […]

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Vol. 36 / No. 1

By: Lea S. McChesney

Producing ‘Generations in Clay’: Kinship, Markets, and Hopi Pottery

In November 1992, “His” or Camille Nampeyo, a 28-year-old great-great-granddaughter of the famous potter Nampeyo, was profiled as one of […]

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Vol. 36 / No. 1

By: Bruce Bernstein

Pueblo Potters, Museum Curators, and Santa Fe’s Indian Market

In 1992 Lonnie Vigil, a potter from the Tewa pueblo of Nambe in New Mexico, almost won Best of Show […]

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Vol. 36 / No. 1

By: Linda B. Eaton

The Hopi Craftsman Exhibition: The Creation of Authenticity

The relationship of the public with American Indians has always been uneasy, and museums are often brokers in the complex […]

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Vol. 36 / No. 2-3

The Ancient Greek World: The Rodney S. Young Gallery

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Vol. 36 / No. 2-3

By: Aleksey A. Malyshev and Michail J. Treister

A Warrior’s Burial from the Asiatic Bosporous in the Augustan Age

In antiquity, a significant part of the northern Black Sea coast belonged to the Bosporan state, with its capital in […]

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Vol. 36 / No. 2-3

By: Jeremy A. Sabloff

Musings and Visions from the Director’s Desk – Summer/Winter 1994

While media images of archaeologists come and go, from the pith-helmeted, absent-minded professor poring over piles of potsherds to the […]

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Vol. 36 / No. 2-3

By: Gregory M. Bongard-Levin and Yuri G. Vinogradov

The Northern Black Sea Coast in Classical Antiquity: New Discoveries

THE NORTHERN BLACK SEA LITTORAL was considered by both ancient and contemporary, scholars to exist on the remotest peripheries of […]

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Vol. 36 / No. 2-3

By: Michail J. Treister

A New Example of Ancient Metalwork from a Sarmatian Kurgan

The Sarmatian were Iranian-speaking nomads who, over the course of centuries, dominated vast territories from the Lower Volga area to […]

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Vol. 36 / No. 2-3

By: Yuri G. Vinogradov

A Maiden’s Golden Burial from Berezan, the Island of Achilles

A thanks-offering to Achilles Pontarkhos. O round booty in its glorious support of the gods, 0 island washed round by […]

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Vol. 36 / No. 2-3

By: Nina A. Leypunskaya

Olbia Pontica and the ‘Olbian Muse’

In the southern part of the Ukraine, not far from where the Bug estuary meets the Black Sea, the Ionian […]

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Vol. 36 / No. 2-3

By: Ekaterina M. Alekseyeva

Gorgippia: A Bosporan Polis in Ancient Sindike

In the 6th century B.C., Ionian and Aeolian colonists founded the first Greek poles (city-states) on the shores of the […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 1

Whiteriver Elementary School, Whiteriver, Arizona

These photographs were taken by students in a photography club led by Mr. William Golladay. The students used a Pentax […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 1

By: Monty Roessel

Navajo Voices

I decided to become a photographer because I was tired of outsiders stepping into my community for a few days […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 1

Hopi

WORK BY STUDENTS AT HON DAY SCHOOL FOR THE 1994 HOPI ART FAIR TRADITIONAL SPRING EVENTS Hotevilla Bacavi School, 3rd […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 1

By: Owen Seumptewa

Photographs by Owen Seumptewa

PHOTOGRAPHS BY OWEN SEUMPTEWA

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Vol. 37 / No. 1

By: Victoria Spencer and Marlene Sekaquaptewa

Piki of the Hopi Indians

As the sun rises, spreading light and warmth over the golden landscape of the Hopi mesas, a woman goes to […]

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Museum Exterior

Vol. 37 / No. 1

By: Jeremy A. Sabloff

Musings and Visions from the Director’s Desk – Spring 1995

The University of Pennsylvania Museum is delighted to have this special issue of Expedition appear in conjunction with the opening […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 1

Mescalero Apache Elementary School Basketry Project

Mescalero Apache Burden Baskets Burden Baskets were made long ago by our Apache people. They were used in many ways. […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 1

Rock Point Community School, Rock Point, Arizona

These are voices from red rock country of Rock Point. These are voices of dry washes and hidden springs in […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 1

By: Dorothy K. Washburn

Introduction – Spring 1995

This special issue of Expedition Magazine is designed to accompany the new exhibition “Living in Balance: The Universe of the […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 1

By: Diane Willie

Frank

One night while the icy wind whistled through the cracks of Grandma’s hogan, the owl came and screeched his prophecy. […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 1

By: Hershman John

Two Poems by Hershman John: Navajo

Grandmother Moon Tonight is the Lunar eclipse Tonight the moon blooms Tonight my grandma is home. The cornfield carpets the […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 1

Zuni: Prepared Foods

Excerpted from ‘Uses of Native Materials in Zuni Pueblo,’ written by Zuni High School English Composition students and edited by […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 2

By: Jeremy A. Sabloff

Musings and Visions from the Director’s Desk – Summer 1995

The University of Pennsylvania Museum recently presented a small but very important temporary exhibit entitled “Illuminating the Past: The Art […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 2

By: Hattula Moholy-Nagy

Shells and Society at Tikal, Guatemala

Thousands of unworked mariner shells, shell arti­facts, and fragments of production waste, or debitage, were recovered from the University of […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 2

By: Gary M. Feinman and Linda M. Nicholas

Household Craft Specialization and Shell Ornament Manufacture in Ejutla, Mexico

INTRODUCTION It has been more than 60 years since Alfonso Caso (1932) discovered the spectacular Tomb 7 at the hilltop […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 2

By: Timothy Matney

Re-excavating Cheshmeh Ali: Reviews and Reports

Fainted ceramic traditions were widespread across southwestern Asia in the Early Chalcolithic period (roughly 5500 to 5000 B.C.), distributed from […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 2

By: Steven E. Sidebotham

Routes Through the Eastern Desert of Egypt

Not since the Ptolemaic-Roman-Byzantine era (late 4th century B.C. to 7th century A.D.) have the Eastern Desert and Red Sea coast of Egypt […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 2

Illuminating the Past: Art and Artists of the Ban Chiang Project: Behind the Scenes

The exhibition “Illuminating the Past: Art and Artists of the Ban Chiang Project” ran from April through August 1995 at […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 3

By: Jeremy A. Sabloff

Musings and Visions from the Director’s Desk – Winter 1995

“museum: an institution devoted to the procurement, care, and display of objects of lasting interest or value.” -Webster’s Third New International […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 3

Cambodia: Restoration and Revival

The five authors of this special issue of Expedition all have lived or worked in Cambodia, some for many years. […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 3

By: Thierry Zephir

The Angkorean Temple-Mountain: Diversity, Evolution, Permanence

In many ancient religions, mountain tops—from the Greeks’ Mt. Olympus to the highest Himalayas of Hindu mythologywere believed to be […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 3

By: Richard A. Engelhardt

Two Thousand Years of Engineering Genius on the Angkor Plain

Commanding a strategic location on the upper­most tip of Cambodia’s great Tonle Dap lake, the ruins of the Angkor Empire […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 3

By: David Bowden

Angkor: Planning for Sustainable Tourism

Tourism is a commodity supporting a vast industry. Indeed it is claimed to he the biggest industry in the world, […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 3

By: David A. Feingold

The Play of the Gods: A Photo-Essay on Khmer Dance Training

David Feingold has watched the revival of Khmer dance over the past nine years, seeing students start to regain the […]

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Vol. 37 / No. 3

By: Heather A. Peters

Cambodian History Through Cambodian Museums

Museums are more than repositories for the relics of the past; they are also mirrors of a people and society […]

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Vol. 38 / No. 1

By: Richard L. Zettler

Tell es-Sweyhat, 1989-1995: A City in Northern Mesopotamia in the 3rd Millennium B.C.

Tell es-Sweyhat is a large 3rd millennium site on the Euphrates River in northern Syria. Excavations undertaken in the mid-1970s […]

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Vol. 38 / No. 1

By: Jeremy A. Sabloff

Settlement Patterns and Community Organization in the Maya Lowlands

Since the last century the principal emphasis of Maya studies has been on the ancient Maya elite. This fact is […]

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Vol. 38 / No. 1

By: Michael D. Danti

The Tell es-Sweyhat Regional Archaeological Project

The Tell es-Sweyhat project’s research design extends beyond the site-specific level of analysis to cover broader issues, regional and interregional […]

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Vol. 38 / No. 1

By: H. Leedom Lefferts, Jr.

The Ritual Importance of the Mundane:: White Cloth Among the Tai of Southeast Asia

Often, when we consider that something has ritual importance, we imagine it as exotic, strange, and, possibly, wondrously beautiful. We […]

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Vol. 38 / No. 1

By: Stephen M. Epstein

Musings and Visions from the Museum – Spring 1996

Perhaps the most self-evident aspect of the University of Pennsylvania Museum’s mission is stewardship of the artifacts in our care. […]

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Vol. 38 / No. 1

By: Jeremiah Dandoy

Astragali, the Ubiquitous Gaming Pieces: Reviews and Reports

The astragalus, or talus, is a uniquely shaped, compact bone (Fig. 2) found in virtually every mammal including humans. It […]

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Vol. 38 / No. 1

By: Peter Peregrine

Geomagnetic Mapping at Tell es-Sweyhat

The premise of the archaeological use of geomagnetic is that archaeological deposits can be recognized as disruptions of the otherwise […]

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Vol. 38 / No. 1

By: Naomi F. Miller and Jill Anne Weber

Botanical and Faunal Remains from Tell es-Sweyhat

Botanical Remains Charred plant remains from ancient sites open a window onto many aspects of ancient Landscape and economy. In […]

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Vol. 38 / No. 2

By: Stuart J. Fleming

Early Imperial Roman Glass at the University of Pennsylvania Museum

Five years ago, when the ideas underlying the forthcoming exhibition Roman Glass: Reflections on Cultural Change were still in embryo, […]

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Vol. 38 / No. 2

By: John Scarborough

Drugs and Medicines in the Roman World

The doctor stepped softly out of the sickroom, where Licinius was breathing his last. Rattling, rasping, wheezing, gasping for air, […]

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Vol. 38 / No. 2

By: Hilary E. M. Cool

The Boudican Uprising and the Glass Vessels from Colchester

In AD 60 the town of Colchester, about 85 kilometers northeast of London (Fig. 2), was burnt to the ground […]

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Vol. 38 / No. 2

By: Jeremy A. Sabloff

Musings and Visions from the Director’s Desk – Summer 1996

It is a great privilege and honor for me to be the eleventh Director (and the second Charles K. Williams […]

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Vol. 38 / No. 2

By: Lee Horne

Glass in the Roman World

In the fall of 1997, more than 180 Roman glass ves­sels from the University of Pennsylvania Museum will be placed […]

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Vol. 38 / No. 2

By: David Whitehouse

Glass, Gold, and Gold-Glasses

Gold-glasses—objects with gold foil ornament sandwiched between two fused layers of glass—were the first category of Roman glass to attract […]

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Vol. 38 / No. 3

By: Vincent C. Pigott

Musings and Visions from the Associate Director – Winter 1996

The University of Pennsylvania Museum ready to take on the next millennium? This question is prompted by a conference I […]

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Vol. 38 / No. 3

By: Robert McCracken Peck

Nomads of the High Plateau: Photographs of Mongolia

For at least 10,000 years the people of Mongolia have dealt with minimal rainfall, sparse vegetation, and some of the […]

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Vol. 38 / No. 3

By: Dorothy K. Washburn

Social Messages and Cultural Information in the Clothing of Southern Lao Women

Archaeologists typically classify the objects they excavate into “types,” that is, groupings of arti­facts that appear similar, generally from the […]

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Vol. 38 / No. 3

By: William H. Davenport

Wogosia: An Annual Renewal Rite in the Eastern Solomon Islands

Each year on the small island of Santa Catalina (locally called Aorilei) in the eastern Solomon Islands, a religious ceremony […]

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Vol. 38 / No. 3

By: Michael W. Meister

Temples Along the Indus

High above the mighty Indus, on hills com­monly called the Salt Range, stand important remains of forts with citadels and […]

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Vol. 38 / No. 3

By: Brunilde Sismondo Ridgway

Is the Hope Head an Italian Goddess?: A Case of Circumstantial Evidence

“Never forget that the most valuable acquisition a man of refined taste can make is a piece of fine Greek sculpture.” This […]

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Vol. 39 / No. 1

By: Helen Schenck

From the Editor – Spring 1997

Once hundred years ago, the University of Pennsylvania Museum put out its first periodical, entitled The Bulletin of the Free […]

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Vol. 39 / No. 1

By: Patrick E. McGovern, Ulrich Hartung, Virginia R. Badler, Donald L. Glusker and Lawrence J. Exner

The Beginnings of Winemaking and Viniculture in the Ancient Near East and Egypt

The origins of winemaking and viniculture are shrouded in the mists of human prehistory. Scenarios of how wine might have […]

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Vol. 39 / No. 1

By: Paul Yule

The Copper Hoards of Northern India

In 1870, while tending cattle, two young boys in the village of Ghangaria in central India noticed a long metal […]

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Vol. 39 / No. 1

By: David R. Starbuck

Military Hospitals on the Frontier of Colonial America

Health care in 18th-century America was radically different from today, and one of the greatest contrasts is in the role played […]

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Vol. 39 / No. 1

By: Adria H. Katz and Jennifer L. White

Betel Chewing Paraphenalia from Asia and the Pacific: Behind the Scenes

From the east coast of Africa through South and Southeast Asia to the islands of Melanesia, wherever the areca palm […]

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Vol. 39 / No. 1

By: Denise Schmandt-Besserat

Animal Symbols at ‘Ain Ghazal

Animal figurines are a familiar find on Near Eastern sites from the 9th to the 3rd millenni­um BC and from […]

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Vol. 39 / No. 2

By: Michael Vickers

Glassware and the Changing Arbiters of Taste

Collectors and scholars have communicated, through exhibits and auction house sales catalogues, that during the time of the Roman Empire […]

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Vol. 39 / No. 2

By: David West Reynolds

The Lost Architecture of Ancient Rome: Insights from the Severan Plan and the Regionary Catalogues

Much of the urban fabric of ancient Rome is lost to us. The famous monuments offer a powerful testament to […]

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Vol. 39 / No. 2

By: Hugh Elton

Off the Battlefield: The Civilian's View of Late Roman Soldiers

When historians discuss the Roman army, they usually talk about the administration of the army or about the army at […]

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Vol. 39 / No. 2

By: Stuart J. Fleming

Late Roman Glass at the University of Pennsylvania Museum: A Photo Essay

The Roman glassmaking industry took root in the late 1st century BC and became established through the 2nd century AD. […]

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Vol. 39 / No. 2

By: John Scarborough

The Life and Times of Alexander of Tralles

Among early Byzantine physicians, Alexander of Tralles (AD 525-605) attracts the admira­tion not only of medical historians, but also of […]

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Vol. 39 / No. 2

By: Jeremy A. Sabloff

Musings and Visions from the Director’s Desk – Summer 1997

As I write this column, the President’s Summit on America’s Future is about to take place in Philadelphia. This Summit […]

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Vol. 39 / No. 2

By: Helen Schenck

Introduction – Summer 1997

This is the second issue of Expedition Magazine to focus on Roman topics in the space of a year. Like […]

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Vol. 39 / No. 3

By: Donald White

Of Coffins, Curses, and Other Plumbeous Matters: The Museum's Lead Burial Casket from Tyre

Many have taken voluminous pains to determine the state of the soul upon disunion; but men have been most phantastical […]

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Vol. 39 / No. 3

By: Peggy Reeves Sanday

Eggi’s Village: Reconsidering the Meaning of Matriarchy

There are many living societies in the world today in which women hold positions of signif­icant power and authority in […]

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Vol. 39 / No. 3

By: Elin C. Danien

The Ritual on the Ratinlixul Vase: Pots and Politics in Highland Guatemala

One of the ironies of archaeology is that as it has matured and changed from what was called “antiquarianism” to […]

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Vol. 39 / No. 3

By: John Kantner

Ancient Roads, Modern Mapping: Evaluating Chaco Anasazi Roadways Using GIS Technology

The study of roads can provide archaeologists with information on prehistoric cultures that often cannot be discovered by digging in […]

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Vol. 39 / No. 3

By: Jeremy A. Sabloff

Musings and Visions from the Director’s Desk – Winter 1997

Looking at the rich array and diversity of the articles in this issue of Expedition, I was struck by the […]

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Vol. 39 / No. 3

By: Irene Bald Romano

No Longer the ‘Pitcairn Nike’: A Minerva-Victoria from Cyrene

Until about ten years ago, visitors to the University of Pennsylvania Museum were greeted at the top of the stairs […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 1

By: Pamela Hearne Jardine

Exhibition on Pomo Indian Weavers and Basketry

This special issue of Expedition is devoted to Pomo Indian ethnohistory and bas­ketry and accompanies the University of Pennsylvania Museum’s […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 1

By: Victoria Patterson

Change and Continuity: Transformations of Pomo Life

The towns and small cities of Northern California that cluster between San Francisco and Eureka are best known today for […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 1

By: Judith Berman

Building a Collection: Native Californian Basketry at the University of Pennsylvania Museum

One afternoon in April of 1905, a Pennsylvania Dutch mill owner named Henry K. Deisher stopped by the University Museum […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 1

By: Sherrie Smith-Ferri

The Development of the Commercial Market for Pomo Indian Baskets

“CANASTROMANIA” Term for “basket fever” coined by Smithsonian curator Otis Mason, from the Latin word canistra, meaning basket (1904:187) Attracted […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 1

By: Sally McLendon

Pomo Basket Weavers in the University of Pennsylvania Museum Collections

The Deisher collection in the University of Pennsylvania Museum is the best-documented single collection of California Indian baskets from the […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 2

By: Lee Horne

Ur and Its Treasures: The Royal Tombs

Alder Sumer lay in lower Mesopotamia, an arid land broken by belts of green along the banks of its canals […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 2

By: Anne Draffkorn Kilmer

The Musical Instruments from Ur and Ancient Mesopotamian Music

The nearly half million cuneiform tablets excavated from ancient Near Eastern sites provide us with ample evidence for the uses […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 2

By: Maude de Schauensee

The ‘Boat-Shaped’ Lyre: Restudy of a Unique Musical Instrument from Ur

Stringed instruments have probably been around since the first time someone stretched a gut, rawhide, or fiber string over a […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 2

By: Edward Ochsenschlager

Life on the Edge of the Marshes

In 1968, archaeologists digging at the mound of Al-Hiba in Iraq were struck by the fact that the people living […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 2

By: Steve Tinney

Texts, Tablets, and Teaching: Scribal Education in Nippur and Ur

Besides the justly famous treasures of the so-called Royal Cemetery, the site of Ur also yield­ed up to its excavators […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 2

By: Yelena Rakic

Rescue and Restoration: A History of the Philadelphia 'Ram Caught in a Thicket'

  In 1928 Sir Leonard Woolley unearthed a find that has been described by some as the most beautiful object […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 2

By: Tamsen Fuller

A Makeover for the Philadelphia ‘Ram Caught in a Thicket’

PHOTO 1. The “Ram” as it was before the new work began in May 1997. As conservators and curators discovered, […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 2

By: Jeremy A. Sabloff

Musings and Visions from the Director’s Desk – Summer 1998

The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology’s collection of materials from the excavations in the Royal Cemetery at […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 2

By: Helen Schenck

Introduction – Summer 1998

Few sites possess the lure and mystique of the  ancient Near Eastern mound of Ur, with its  imposing ziggurat and […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 3

By: Steve Ferzacca

Frederica de Laguna and Her Reunion Under Mount Saint Elias

Anthropologist Frederica de Laguna (“Freddy”) began her anthropological career almost seven­ty years ago (Fig. 1). In 1930 she led an […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 3

Faces of the Canaanites and Israelites

A new permanent exhibition on Canaan and Ancient Israel is now open at the University of Pennsylvania Museum. The over […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 3

By: Pia Guldager Bilde

‘Those Nemi Sculptures…’: Marbles from a Roman Sanctuary in the University of Pennsylvania Museum

Frothingham’s arrival will be fatal to us. If this American remains in Rome, he will surely get hold of it […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 3

By: David R. Starbuck

New Perspectives on Shaker Life: An Archaeologist Discovers 'Hog Heaven' at Canterbury Shaker Village

I had concluded a conversation. But informal conversations could often be very revealing about the behavior that was (or was not) […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 3

By: Marilyn Norcini

From the New Associate Director for Collections and Exhibitions

I would like to introduce myself to the readers of Expedition and express my vision of museum work. My career […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 3

By: John L. Cotter

Jamestown: A Personal Reminiscence

In conjunction with the 97th Annual Conference of the American Anthropological Association, to be held in Philadelphia in December of […]

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Vol. 40 / No. 3

By: Alex Pezzati

New Additions to the Bonfils Photographic Collection: From the Archives

The Museum Archives has recently received from Drexel University Libraries (Philadelphia) a gift of 120 Bonfils photo­graphic prints to be […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 1

By: Jeremy A. Sabloff

Musings and Visions from the Director’s Desk – Spring 1999

Readers will note that Expedition has a new, and we hope, inviting look, with the addition of five short departmental […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 1

Museum Mosaic: The Mediterranean Section; Dr. Fredrik T. Hiebert; Dr. Ezat O. Negahban; John Lambert Cotter, Ph.D

The MEDITERRANEAN SECTION has recently received a matching grant of $17,500 from the National Endowment for the Arts. The grant […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 1

By: Naomi F. Miller

Date Sex in Mesopotamia!: Science and Archaeology

The Royal Cemetery at Ur, a late 3rd millennium BC site in Iraq (Mesopotamia), was excavated by Sir Leonard Woolley in […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 1

By: Pam Kosty

In the Beginning…: What in the World?

At this, the centennial of the Museum’s building (see article by Douglas Haller, p. 31), we found ourselves wondering: What […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 1

By: Patrick E. McGovern

Searching for the Beginnings of Winemaking: Research Notes

In September 1997, I lectured on “Ancient Wine and the Vine” cup and down the West Coast. In the heartland […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 1

By: Douglas M. Haller

Architectural Archaeology: A Centennial View of the Museum Buildings

While many are familiar with the University of Pennsylvania Museum as an archaeological treasure house, few know about its role in Philadelphia culture, the […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 1

By: William H. Davenport

Vengeful Spirits and Guardian Dieties: Myth and Sculpture in the Eastern Solomon Islands

Traditional sculpture in the Eastern Solomon Islands draws heavily upon mythology for its imagery. One can even say that the […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 1

By: Dietrich Berges

Hidden Treasures from the Vault: Engraved Gems from the Maxwell Sommerville Collection

Jewel and precious stones are normally kept in the Museum vault or behind bullet-proof glass. It is unusual, however, for […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 2

By: Lynn Grant

Conservation at Copan

One of my favorite parts of archaeo­logical conservation is being a field conser­vator and working with the archaeologists on site […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 2

By: Jennifer Houser Wegner

Lost and Found Fragments of Egyptian Wisdom: Lost and Found Fragments of Egyptian Wisdom

One of the oldest types of ancient Egyptian literature is that known as “instructions” or “wisdom literature”. “Instructions” appeared in […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 2

By: Fredrik T. Hiebert

In Search of Anau’s Past: Research Notes

Before the Russian Revolution, a seventy-year-old American geolo­gist named Raphael Pumpelly headed up one of the first scientific excavations ever […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 2

By: Robert J. Sharer

Archaeology and History in the Royal Acropolis, Copan, Honduras

In a tropical valley on the western edge of Honduras lie the mas­sive ruins of Copan. Here Maya farmers once […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 2

By: David W. Sedat and Fernando Lopez

Tunneling into the Heart of the Copan Acropolis

Around AD 426 K’inich Yax K’uk’ Mo’ achieved preeminence at Copan and founded a dynasty. During his reign, a complex […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 2

By: John F. Harris

Dynasty Founder Yax K’uk’ Mo’ According to the Inscriptions

Inscriptions carved on monuments and structures found at Copan tell of a dynasty of rulers, six­teen in number, that held […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 2

Museum Mosaic – Summer 1999: People, Places, Projects

The International Classroom of the Univer­sity of Pennsylvania Museum provided two artist-presenters to the Annual Art Night celebration of Chews […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 2

By: Ellen E. Bell, Loa P. Traxler, David W. Sedat and Robert J. Sharer

Uncovering Copan’s Earliest Royal Tombs

The royal tombs found buried deep within the core of the Acropolis are a potent source of information about Early […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 2

By: Stuart J. Fleming

Confounding the Conquistadors: Tumbaga’s Spurious Luster: Science & Archaeology

AD 1519, central Panama: the conquistadors were angry. They had promised the Spanish court a mass of gold in return […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 2

By: Eleanor Coates

Featured Finds from Copan: A Portfolio of Photographs

Eleanor (Bunny) Coates is a graduate student in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania. She has worked […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 2

By: Alex Pezzati and Jennifer Quick

The Flowering of the Museum Gardens: From the Archives

The University of Pennsylvania Museum sits on a plot of land that had been reserved by the City of Philadelphia […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 2

By: Jeremy A. Sabloff

From the Director

The Early Copan Acropolis Program (ECAP) of the University of Pennsylvania Museum has been an extraordinarily successful re­search endeavor. Under […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 3

By: Janet Monge and Alan Mann

A New View of a Neandertal Fossil Bone Collection: Science & Archaeology

The Neandertals are among the most enigmatic of our earlier rela­tives. With their large browridges, low foreheads, and projecting faces […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 3

By: Donald White

Renovating the Etruscan and Roman Galleries

What with a total replacement of its fire safety and security system and the imminent addition of the new Mainwaring […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 3

By: Alex Pezzati

Sitio Conte Excavations Come to Life on the Web: From the Archives

J. Alden Mason wrote this unabashed paean to the American Section’s Linton Sat­terthwaite when he was excavating at Sitio Conte, […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 3

By: Michael C. Howard and Naffi Sanggenafa

Terfo: Survival of a Weaving Tradition in New Guinea

Traditional dress in Irian Jaya, in the Pacific archipelago nation of Indonesia, is usually associated with penis gourds, string bags, […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 3

By: Lucy Fowler Williams and Robert Preucel

The Here and Now of Pueblo Pottery: What in the World

How are contemporary Pueblo people interpreting their rich cultural heritage and how is this affecting their traditional arts? These, and related […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 3

By: Richard Veit

Mastodons, Mound Builders, and Montroville Wilson Dickeson–Pioneering American Archaeologist

The history of archaeology is populated by a varied cast of scholars. showmen, adventurers. and charlatans. This article exam­ines the […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 3

By: Dan Penny

Pollen Grains in Sands of Time

Over the past 30 years or so, a genteel battle has raged over the prehistory of northeast Thailand. Despite a […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 3

By: Fredrik T. Hiebert

On the Track of the Ancient Silk Road

Driving westward from Tashkent (the modern capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan) to the ancient city of Samarkand, way station […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 3

By: Helen Schenck

ODUNDE: An African American Festival on South Street, Philadelphia

Thomas B. Morton has been attending and photographing ODUNDE since 1976. An exhibi­tion of 30 of his black and white […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 3

Museum Mosaic – Winter 1999: People, Places, Projects

The University of Pennsylvania Museum received a grant of $30,000 from the Trust for Mutual Understanding to facilitate AN EXCHANGE […]

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Vol. 41 / No. 3

By: Josef Wegner

Excavating the Residence of an Ancient Egyptian Mayor: Research Notes

For 1000 miles, from the Mediterranean Sea south into Nubia, the Nile Valley is dense with the great buildings of […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 1

Museum Mosaic – Spring 2000: People, Places, Projects

Dr. Bernard Wailes Dr. Bernard Wailes, Curator Emeritus, European Archaeology Section, University of Pennsylvania Museum, and Professor Emeritus, Department of […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 1

By: Dwaune Latimer

Currently on Loan: What in the World

Two masterpieces from the University of Pennsylvania Museum’s African collection are currently on loan to The Metropolitan Museum of Art […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 1

By: Peggy Reeves Sanday

Representations of the Land: Anthropology and Aboriginals: Research Notes

In 1947 my father, Frank Reeves, discovered Wolfe Creek Crater, one of the most acclaimed geological features in Australia. Located […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 1

By: David Gilman Romano

Roman Surveyors in Corinth, Greece: Science & Archaeology

When the Roman army defeated the allied forces of the Greeks near Corinth in 146 BC, this marked the end […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 1

By: Patrick E. McGovern

The Funerary Banquet of ‘King Midas’

Fifty years ago, the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology began excavations at the ancient Phrygian capital of […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 1

By: Naomi F. Miller

Plants in the Service of Archaeological Preservation

Several years ago Dr. Ilhan Temizsoy, director of the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, expressed concern about erosion on the Midas […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 1

By: Robert W. Preucel

Living on the Mesa: Hanat Kotyiti, A Post-Revolt Cochiti Community in Northern New Mexico

On August 10, 1680, the Pueblo Indians of the Spanish province of New Mexico, along with their Navajo and Apache allies, […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 1

By: Michael W. Meister, Abdur Rehman and Farid Khan

Discovery of a New Temple on the Indus

Along the Indus River and on the plateau and escarpments of the Salt Range in upper Pakistan, a sequence of […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 1

By: Keith DeVries

Gordion

The year 2000 marks both a month and a 50th anniversary for Gordion. In 1900 the German Koerte brothers conducted […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 1

By: Jeremy A. Sabloff

From the Director

The University of Pennsylvania Museum’s archaeological research at the site of Gordion in central Turkey was launched fifty years ago […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 1

By: Alex Pezzati

Thomas C. Donaldson and the 1890 U.S. Census: From the Archives

The University of Pennsylvania Museum Archives houses thousands of 19th centry photographs documenting people and places all over the world. […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 2

By: Henry N. Michael

Tree Rings and Radiocarbon Dates: Science & Archaeology

The advent of radiocarbon dating enabled scientists to put ancient organic remains into a far more reliable chronological framework than […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 2

By: Alex Pezzati

A Crowning Achievement: Zelia Nuttall in Czarist Russia: From the Archives

Why was Zelia Nuttall, a well-known Aztec scholar, engaged to travel to Russia as a representative of the University of […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 2

By: Josef Wegner

A Hundred Years at South Abydos: Reconstructing the Temple of Pharaoh Senwosret III

Discovery and Rediscovery of a Royal Mortuary Temple Late in 1899 a young British archaeologist, David Randall-Maclver, was exploring the […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 2

By: Jennifer L. White

A Masterpiece in Clay: A Han House Model Reflects Traditional Chinese Life

For over twenty years a clay model of a three-story structure has stood with little notice among green-glazed ceramic tombwares […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 2

By: Leigh-Ann Bedal

Paradise Found: Petra's Urban Oasis

The ruins of the ancient city of Petra Crock” in Greek) lie in the mountains that form the eastern border […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 2

By: Paul Zimmerman

The City of Petra

Petra, one of the great cities of antiquity, Is nestled in the rugged Shan’ mountains of southern Jordan, halfway between the […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 2

By: Paul Zimmerman

Mapping Petra

In 1993 Martha Joukowsky opened a new exca­vation at the ancient Nabatean city of Petra in southwest Jordan (see box […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 2

By: Jing Sun

Opening Windows on the Outside World: My Experiences as an International Classroom Speaker

I came to the United States in February 1998 as a visiting scholar to do research on teaching English to minority […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 2

Museum Mosaic – Summer 2000: People, Places, Projects

The University of Pennsylvania Museum awarded two honors in April 2000 in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Society […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 2

By: Jeremy A. Sabloff

From the Director

This issue of Expedition highlights one of the most renowned strengths of the University of Pennsylvania Museum: our ar­chaeological and […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 2

By: Irene Bald Romano

What Is This Statue Doing Up In the Air?: What in the World

The marble statue of a seated Dionysos with a Lion (MS 5483) has been a familiar landmark in the center […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 2

By: James R. Mathieu

A Tree Falls in Philadelphia: Research Notes

The plunging of a silver shovel into the dirt on April 14, 2000, marked the official groundbreaking for the construction […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 3

By: Pika Ghosh

Kalighat Paintings from Nineteenth Century Calcutta in Maxwell Sommerville’s ‘Ethnological East Indian Collection’

Kalighat paintings, as the name suggests, were created in the Kali Temple area on the ghat (bank) of the Burin […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 3

By: Ellen E. Bell, Robert J. Sharer, David W. Sedat, Marcello A. Canuto and Lynn Grant

The Margarita Tomb at Copan, Honduras: A Research Update

In an earlier issue of Expedition (41[2]), we reported on the first five years of work in an Early Classic […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 3

By: Rebecca Huss-Ashmore

‘The Real Me’: Therapeutic Narrative in Cosmetic Surgery

At 10:25, Kim gets out of her chair and paces across the examining room for at least the tenth time. […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 3

By: William Davenport

A Melanesian Wedding: Santa Cruz Island

Marriage is a social institution that appears to be universal to all human societies, but only some societies mark the […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 3

Museum Mosaic: People, Places, Projects – Winter 2000: International Classroom; Searching for Ancient Egypt; Dr. David Silverman; The University of Pennsylvania Museum on the Road

Welcome! Bienvenue! Swagatam! Willkommenl! INTERNATIONAL CLASSROOM hosted its annual In­ternational Student Reception on October 20, 2000. International students, scholars, and […]

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Jeremy A. Sabloff

Vol. 42 / No. 3

By: Jeremy A. Sabloff

From the Director

As I write this column, work on our new collections storage and research addition, the Mainwaring Wing, is moving along […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 3

By: Fredrik T. Hiebert

Unique Bronze Age Stamp Seal Found in Central Asia: What in the World

The University of Pennsylvania Museum Central Asia archaeology project has recently completed its third season of investigation at Anau depe […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 3

By: Alex Pezzati

Painted Walls, Painted Faces: From the Archives

The University of Pennsylvania Museum is not known for its collec­tions of oil paintings, but the Archives displays a few […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 3

By: Julia Lawson

Unraveling Threads: Conservation of the Weaving Lady: Research Notes

In the early 1960s the University of Pennsylvania Museum acquired an unusually precolumbian figural object. It consists of a doll-like […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 3

By: Kathleen Ryan

Edible Wild Plants as Digestive Aids: Ethnoarchaeology in Maasailand: Science & Archaeology

Indigenous cultures around the world retain knowledge of a diversity of plants in their environments, including plants used for medicinal […]

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Vol. 42 / No. 3

By: Lucy Fowler Williams and Melissa Wagner

American Collections Inspire Native Artists and Indian Communities

The American Section of University of Pennsylvania Museum has developed a rewarding relationship with the National Museum of the American […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 1

By: Alex de Voogt

Mancala: Games That Count

Passengers waiting patiently for their luggage in the Toronto airport frowned perplexedly at my dealings with a man from Uganda. […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 1

By: Clark L. Erickson

Precolumbian Fish Farming in the Amazon: Research Notes

Popular images associated with the Amazon today include the towering continuous green forest canopy, Day-Glo poison dart frogs, and native […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 1

By: Fredrik T. Hiebert

Eurasian Archaeology

This issue of Expedition highlights recent research in three distinctly different en­vironments of Eurasia: the Black Sea coastal region, the […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 1

By: Fredrik T. Hiebert

Black Sea Coastal Cultures: Trade and Interaction

Trade and Maritime Space The study of ancient trade has greatly enhanced our understanding of the de­velopment of civilizations. In […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 1

By: Natalia Shishlina

Early Herders of the Eurasian Steppe

In the broad treeless steppe of Kalmykia, situated almost directly between the Black and Caspian seas, stands a huge burial mound […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 1

By: Alexander Emel'yanov

Forest Hunters of Eurasia

The forest zone of central Eurasia is a territory of continental climates (cold winters and warm summers), with dense temperate […]

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Museum Exterior

Vol. 43 / No. 1

By: Jeremy A. Sabloff

From the Director

In February 15, 2001, the Museum publicity launched its $55 million The 21st Century Campaign: Preserving the Past, Endowing the […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 1

Museum Mosaic – Spring 2001: People, Places, Projects

Dr. Gerald Margolis The University of Pennsylvania Museum wel­comes a senior administrator who started at the Museum on February 28, […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 1

Found! A Pair of Doves–and More…: What in the World?

In 1999, James Cahill, a leading international authority on Chinese painting, descended into the storerooms of the University of Pennsyl­vania […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 1

By: Alex Pezzati

World Photography on the Worldwide Web: From the Archives

The photographic collections of the University of Pennsylvania Mu­seum Archives consist of approximately 300,00o items: glass and film negatives, paper-based […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 1

By: Janet Monge

Researching the Origins of Swahili Coast Inhabitants

The end of the 10th century marked many changes in the way ar­chaeological and physical anthropological research is conducted. Most […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 2

By: Gerald Margolis

From the Deputy Director for Operations

My introduction to the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology coincided with my first trip to Philadelphia twenty […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 2

By: Lucy Fowler Williams

Seeing Through the Eyes of an Artist: What in the World

Roxanne Wentzell, from Santa Clara Pueblo in northern New Mex­ico, is a highly accomplished artist who specializes in sculpting human […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 2

By: Alex Pezzati

Borneo and Beyond: The Adventures of Furness, Harrison, and Hiller: From the Archives

Between 1895 and 1903, three young men affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania undertook several expeditions to the mysterious world […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 2

By: Jeffrey M. Mitchem

The Willcox Copper Plate from Florida: Research Notes

My heart raced when I first saw it. I was in the Museum’s collections area with American Section Assistant Keeper […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 2

By: Elizabeth Hamilton

Bronze from Ban Chiang, Thailand: A View from the Laboratory: Science & Archaeology

An American college student’s famous stumble over a tree root that led to the discovery of the Bronze Age culture […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 2

By: Andrew L. Goldman

A Roman Town Cemetery at Gordion, Turkey

King Midas. The Phrygians. Alexander cut­ting the Gordian Knot. These are among the many subjects ordinarily associated with the site […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 2

By: Adria H. Katz

Decorated Canoe Prow-boards from the Trobriand Islands

The University Museum recently came into possession of three canoe prow-boards (Fig. I) collected in the Trobriand Islands in 1983 […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 2

By: Deborah I. Olszewski, Shannon P. McPherron, Harold L. Dibble and Marie Soressi

Middle Egypt in Prehistory: A Search for the Origins of Modern Human Behavior and Human Dispersal

The word Egypt for many people evokes im­ages of one of the great civilizations of the ancient world and represents […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 2

By: Victor H. Mair

The Case of the Wayward Oracle Bone

Late last summer (2000), when I returned to my office from a research trip to China, a message was waiting for me […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 2

Museum Mosaic – Summer 2001: People, Places, Projects

Highlights from the Museum’s traveling exhibi­tion, ‘THE ROYAL TOMBS OF Ur”—including the world-renowned “Ram-in-the-Thicket,” Lady Pu-Abi’s headdress, and a gold and […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 2

By: Clark L. Erickson

Pre-Columbian Roads of the Amazon

Traditionally, archaeologists have studied “sites.” Sites include monuments, settle­ments, cities, cemeteries, mounds, and other important places of the past. The […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 3

By: Harold L. Dibble

From the Deputy Director for Curatorial Affairs

In the last issue, Dr. Gerald Margolis introduced himself as the Museum’s new Deputy Director of Operations. I too have […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 3

By: Ann Blair Brownlee and Jean MacIntosh Turfa

Etruscan Sandals: Fancy Footwear from the Sixth Century BC: What in the World

In October of 2002, three new galleries will join “The Ancient Greek World” to form a suite devoted to the […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 3

By: Alex Pezzati

The Hand of Fate in Tatiana Proskouriakoff’s Career: From the Archives

Of all the brilliant minds that have lit up the firmament of ancient Maya studies, there is none that arouses […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 3

By: Mac Marston

The Grass is Always Greener in the Boma: Science & Archaeology

The two main components of archaeological fieldwork are locating sites and then excavating them. Site survey is necessary to locate […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 3

By: Benjamin Pykles

Historic Glass from Block 49, a Mormon Site in the Salt Lake Valley: Research Notes

A hallmark of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the strictly observed health code known as the […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 3

By: John H. Walker

Work Parties and Raised Field Groups in the Bolivian Amazon

The Amazon River moves more water and sediment than any other river in the world, and at the mouth of […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 3

By: Ayşe Gursan-Salzmann

The Women of Yassihöyük, Turkey: Changing Roles in a New Economy

It is widely acknowledged that women are the mainstay of household operations. especially in rural agricultural communities, and their contri­butions […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 3

By: Leslie Guy

Moving the Museum’s Ethnographic Collections: A Conservation Approach

Beginning in January 2002 the Museum will be relocating almost 100,000 ethnographic artifacts from Africa, Asia, the Americas, and Oceania […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 3

By: Michael Danti

Palmyrene Funerary Sculptures at Penn

Today, the ancient city of Palmyra, the cara­van center and oasis of the Syrian Desert (Fig. I), evokes romantic images […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 3

By: Elin C. Danien

Chicken Soup and Canvas Bags: Advice for the Field

Today when the Internet is almost ubiqui­tous and air travel is as common as a walk down the lane, it’s […]

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Vol. 43 / No. 3

Museum Mosaic – Winter 2001: People, Places, Projects

The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology has been running a nationally known Collections Management Internship Program for […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 1

Museum Mosaic – Spring 2002: People, Places, Projects

It isn’t made of gold, but an enigmatic ivory statuette of a lion tamer may once have belonged to King Midas. At least […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 1

By: Suzanne Sheehan Becker

From the Director for Development

Every day at the University of Pennsylvania Museum you learn some thing new, something that expands your awareness and challenges your […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 1

By: Shannon C. White

An Alabaster Mystery: What in the World?

Did it once hold cosmetics for a Parthian beauty? Or perhaps weight her loom? Or maybe it was a sacred […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 1

By: Alex Pezzati

Murder in Mesopotamia: From the Archives

The Setting is an Archaeological expedition to Ur, in Iraq, during the 1930s. The beautiful, intriguing, and temperamental wife of […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 1

By: Brian L. Peasnall

Intricacies of Hallan Çemi: Research Notes

Until recently, Southeastern Anatolia (Turkish Asia Minor) was largely written off as a cultur­al backwater during the Neolithic period, the […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 1

By: Melvyn Hammarberg

The World of the Latter-day Saints–A Life Plan Model

The 2002 Winter Olympics brought worldwide attention to Salt Lake City, headquarters of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 1

By: Deborah I. Olszewski and Nancy R. Coinman

An Ice Age Oasis in Jordan: Pleistocene Hunter-gatherers in the Wadi al-Hasa Region

If you visited the Wadi al-Hasa region of west cen­tral Jordan today, you would probably find it hard to picture […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 1

By: Valentina Livi

A Story Told in Pieces: Architectural Terracottas from Minturnae

At the dawn of the third century B.C., Rome was on the move. The upstart city on the Tiber was […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 1

By: Michael D. Danti and Richard L. Zettler

Excavating an Enigma: The Latest Discoveries from Tell es-Sweyhat

An excavation is all the more intriguing when it unveils something totally unexpected. Tell es-Sweyhat in northern Syria has much […]

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Jeremy A. Sabloff

Vol. 44 / No. 2

By: Jeremy A. Sabloff

From the Director – Summer 2000

I am delighted to announce that Dr. Beebe Bahrami is the new editor of Expedition. She is the latest in a distinguished […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 2

By: Sharon Aponte Misdea

Museum Mosaic – Summer 2002: : People, Places, Projects

Worlds Intertwined: The Etruscans, Greeks, and Romans will open to the public in Spring 2003. The $3 million project completes the reinstallation of […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 2

By: Alex Pezzati

From the Archives: The Big One That Got Away: Heye-day Ends With Loss of Prized American Indian Collection

In the early 20th century, the University of Pennsylvania Museum competed with other museums in the United States and Europe for collections of primitive and ancient […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 2

By: Sharon Nagy and Nabil Abu-Dayyeh

Village Air for Urban Elites: Heritage Cafe Complexes in Jordan

Memorializing everyday life is a common practice that spans cultures and countries. We easily recognize this in theme parks, living-history museums, […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 2

By: Theodore G. Schurr

Book News & Reviews: 500,000 Years in Siberia: Digs Link a Long History of Migrations to Cultural Diversity: The Paleolithic of Siberia: New Discoveries and Interpretations

New archaeological evidence concerning how people lived in Siberia during the Paleolithic period is the subject of this ambitious book. Along with patterns of […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 2

By: Harold Dibble

Learning More About Neandertals: A Newly Discovered Tool Piques Curiosity: What in the World

From about 250,000 to 35,000 years ago, during the Middle Paleolithic, or Mousterian, period, Neandertals lived in Western Europe. Although we occasionally find bits […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 2

By: Charles A. Evers and Ann Blair Brownlee

Restoration & Renewal: Museum Readies Mediterranean Section Galleries for the 21st Century

There is a new sense of excitement in the Museum’s Mediterranean Galleries, which are devoted to the cultures of ancient Greece […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 2

By: Beebe Bahrami

An Enduring Legacy: Robert L. Trescher Crafted the Modern Museum: Portrait

Robert L. Trescher, Esq., opened many doors for individuals and institutions through-out his life. So it is entirely appropriate that his name is honored at […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 2

By: Melvyn Hammarberg

Research Notes: The Olympic Face of the LDS Church: A Warm Welcome Belies the Low Profile of the 'LDS Olympics'

As part of my research on the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, my wife and I flew to Salt Lake City the day […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 2

By: Matt Glendinning

Recovering the Lost Art of Phrygian Roof Tiling: Practical and Aesthetic Elements Converge in Clay, Reflecting Greek Artistic Temperament

An impressive sight must have greeted a visitor entering the fortified citadel of Gordion in the early sixth century B. C. After suffering devastating destruction by […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 2

By: Michael D. Danti

The View from the Tell: Nafila Villagers Make Room for an Expedition: Field Experience

Try as we might to avoid the romantic image of archaeologists roughing it in the field, that ’s precisely what we do each dig […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 2

By: Sharon Aponte Misdea

A Visual History of Archaeology at Tikal

Since its introduction in the mid-19th century, photography has played a prominent role in documenting archaeological sites. Photographs record excavations and artifacts, […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 3

By: Janet Richards

Time and Memory in Ancient Egyptian Cemeteries: The Dynamic History of Ancient Sites

When travelers visit ancient sites in modern Egypt, they experience a static and soften recreated snapshot of a moment time […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 3

By: David R. Starbuck

By Yon Bonnie Banks: An Archaeological Search for Clan MacFarlane

Scotland has traditionally evoked images of plaids, bagpipes, haggis, thrift, hospitality, and sheep as far as the eye can see. […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 3

By: Benedicte Grima

Women, Culture, and Health in Rural Afghanistan

For years women in tribal and rural Afghanistan have received minimal medical attention. The reasons extend far beyond the war […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 3

By: Beebe Bahrami

From the Editor – Winter 2002

I am deeply honored and delighted to be Expedition’s new editor and to help fulfill Expedition’s mission of advancing our […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 3

Museum Mosaic – Winter 2002: People, Places, Projects

The Near Eastern Section recently received a grant from the Museum Loan Network, the University of Pennsylvania Museum’s third MLN […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 3

By: William Wierzbowski

Walrus Ivory Pieces: Eskimo Artistry Unbuttoned: What in the World

Hunting or fishing gear? Amulets or charms? Gaming pieces? These walrus ivory objects, delicately carved bas-reliefs with images of either a seal […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 3

By: Theodore G. Schurr

Exploring Kamchatka’s Indigenous Past: Molecular Anthropology is Sent to Siberia

For much of its history, the Kamchatka Peninsula in remote northeastern Russia has remained largely unknown to the outside world. […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 3

By: Andrew L. Goldman

A Rare Roman Trio: Octagonal Gemstones Excavated at Gordion: Research Notes

Fascination with collect­ing Roman gemstones is nothing new. In Roman times, Pompey the Great was an avid collector, as was […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 3

By: Charles Golden and Deward E. Walker, Jr.

Book News & Reviews

Review by Charles Golden It is impossible for anyone — whether an archaeologist or a casual tourist — to explore […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 3

By: Naomi F. Miller

Food, Fodder, or Fuel?: Harvesting the Secrets of Ancient Seeds: Science & Archaeology

When I was in Southern Iran  in the 1970s, I collected charred woods and seed plant remains from the ancient city of Anshan, […]

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Vol. 44 / No. 3

By: William Hafford

The Taste of a Dig: Cooking up Successful Fieldwork: Field Experience

Many things are necessary for an archaeologi­cal project to succeed, but a cook is particularly critical. If you combine hard […]